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Open AccessArticle

The Usage of Alternative Materials to Optimize Bus Frame Structure

1
Department of Automobile Engineering, Transport Engineering Faculty, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanavičiaus g. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
2
Institute of Mechanical Science, Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, J. Basanavičiaus g. 28, LT-03224 Vilnius, Lithuania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(6), 1010; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12061010
Received: 20 May 2020 / Revised: 5 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 15 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Symmetry in Mechanical Engineering Ⅱ)
The strength and stiffness of the frame is one of the key indicators of vehicle structures. Insufficient stiffness causes vibration and noise, and is also less comfortable for both the passengers and the driver. Symmetry is required between the strength and comfort of the structural frame, which depends on vibration and noise. This article analyses the frame of the structure of a medium-sized passenger bus and its dynamic properties, when replacing materials of structural elements which do not affect the symmetry of the structure. The conducted theoretical and experimental modal analysis of the bus, allows for evaluating dynamic parameters and validating the theoretical model based on the experimental results. The optimization of the medium-sized passenger bus frame—by replacing the material of the ancillary frame elements with fiberglass—reveals that its dynamic characteristics change by up to 20%, comparing the values of the first three resonant frequencies with those of the steel structure. The obtained results show that replacing the material of ancillary frame elements with fiberglass, while maintaining the symmetrical arrangement of the elements in the structure, does not change the safety characteristics of the structure, reducing the mass of the frame by 11%, and shifting the coordinate of the centre of gravity vertically downwards, which is very important for stability, comfort and fuel consumption. View Full-Text
Keywords: bus frame; dynamic analysis; finite element method; alternative materials; mode bus frame; dynamic analysis; finite element method; alternative materials; mode
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Pravilonis, T.; Sokolovskij, E.; Kilikevičius, A.; Matijošius, J.; Kilikevičienė, K. The Usage of Alternative Materials to Optimize Bus Frame Structure. Symmetry 2020, 12, 1010.

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