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Position Dependent Planck’s Constant in a Frequency-Conserving Schrödinger Equation

1
Optical Physics Company, Simi Valley, CA 93063, USA
2
Physics and Astronomy Department, Ventura College, Ventura, CA 93003, USA
Symmetry 2020, 12(4), 490; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040490
Received: 29 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 18 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
There is controversial evidence that Planck’s constant shows unexpected variations with altitude above the earth due to Kentosh and Mohageg, and yearly systematic changes with the orbit of the earth about the sun due to Hutchin. Many others have postulated that the fundamental constants of nature are not constant, either in locally flat reference frames, or on larger scales. This work is a mathematical study examining the impact of a position dependent Planck’s constant in the Schrödinger equation. With no modifications to the equation, the Hamiltonian becomes a non-Hermitian radial frequency operator. The frequency operator does not conserve normalization, time evolution is no longer unitary, and frequency eigenvalues can be complex. The wavefunction must continually be normalized at each time in order that operators commuting with the frequency operator produce constants of the motion. To eliminate these problems, the frequency operator is replaced with a symmetrizing anti-commutator so that it is once again Hermitian. It is found that particles statistically avoid regions of higher Planck’s constant in the absence of an external potential. Frequency is conserved, and the total frequency equals “kinetic frequency” plus “potential frequency”. No straightforward connection to classical mechanics is found, that is, the Ehrenfest’s theorems are more complicated, and the usual quantities related by them can be complex or imaginary. Energy is conserved only locally with small gradients in Planck’s constant. Two Lagrangian densities are investigated to determine whether they result in a classical field equation of motion resembling the frequency-conserving Schrödinger equation. The first Largrangian is the “energy squared” form, the second is a “frequency squared” form. Neither reproduces the target equation, and it is concluded that the frequency-conserving Schrödinger equation may defy deduction from field theory. View Full-Text
Keywords: Planck’s constant; Variable Planck’s constant; non-Hermitian operators; Schrödinger equation Planck’s constant; Variable Planck’s constant; non-Hermitian operators; Schrödinger equation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Dannenberg, R. Position Dependent Planck’s Constant in a Frequency-Conserving Schrödinger Equation. Symmetry 2020, 12, 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040490

AMA Style

Dannenberg R. Position Dependent Planck’s Constant in a Frequency-Conserving Schrödinger Equation. Symmetry. 2020; 12(4):490. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040490

Chicago/Turabian Style

Dannenberg, Rand. 2020. "Position Dependent Planck’s Constant in a Frequency-Conserving Schrödinger Equation" Symmetry 12, no. 4: 490. https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12040490

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