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Mathematical Modelling of Ground Truth Image for 3D Microscopic Objects Using Cascade of Convolutional Neural Networks Optimized with Parameters’ Combinations Generators

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Computer Science, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, University of Sarajevo, 71000 Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
2
Université Clermont Auvergne, CNRS, Inserm, GReD, F-63000 Clermont-Ferrand, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2020, 12(3), 416; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030416
Received: 13 February 2020 / Revised: 28 February 2020 / Accepted: 2 March 2020 / Published: 5 March 2020
Mathematical modelling to compute ground truth from 3D images is an area of research that can strongly benefit from machine learning methods. Deep neural networks (DNNs) are state-of-the-art methods design for solving these kinds of difficulties. Convolutional neural networks (CNNs), as one class of DNNs, can overcome special requirements of quantitative analysis especially when image segmentation is needed. This article presents a system that uses a cascade of CNNs with symmetric blocks of layers in chain, dedicated to 3D image segmentation from microscopic images of 3D nuclei. The system is designed through eight experiments that differ in following aspects: number of training slices and 3D samples for training, usage of pre-trained CNNs and number of slices and 3D samples for validation. CNNs parameters are optimized using linear, brute force, and random combinatorics, followed by voter and median operations. Data augmentation techniques such as reflection, translation and rotation are used in order to produce sufficient training set for CNNs. Optimal CNN parameters are reached by defining 11 standard and two proposed metrics. Finally, benchmarking demonstrates that CNNs improve segmentation accuracy, reliability and increased annotation accuracy, confirming the relevance of CNNs to generate high-throughput mathematical ground truth 3D images. View Full-Text
Keywords: mathematical ground truth image; deep learning; convolutional neural network; microscopic images; optimization mathematical ground truth image; deep learning; convolutional neural network; microscopic images; optimization
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Bilalovic, O.; Avdagic, Z.; Omanovic, S.; Besic, I.; Letic, V.; Tatout, C. Mathematical Modelling of Ground Truth Image for 3D Microscopic Objects Using Cascade of Convolutional Neural Networks Optimized with Parameters’ Combinations Generators. Symmetry 2020, 12, 416.

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