# From the Early Universe to the Modern Universe

## Abstract

**:**

^{−5}–10

^{−3}eV. It follows the composite model of particles. This model reproduces three relativistic phase transitions in the medium of familons at different red shifts, forming a large scale structure of the Universe dark matter that was “repeated” by baryons. Here three generations of elementary particles are absolutely necessary.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. The Birth of the Universe. Modernization of the Process of Baryon Asymmetry

^{88}), the model of a slowly swelling Universe as the result of the multiple reproductions of cosmological cycles arises naturally. Eventually, it had passed off to a modern de Sitter regime by tunneling [6]. Besides, the cyclic solution is an attractor [9]. As pointed out in article [10] many years ago, entropy produced during one cycle would add to the entropy produced in the next, causing each cycle to be longer than the one before it. Details of the cyclic model and propagation through singularity can be found in articles [11,12]. On Figure 1 illustration of a slowly swelling Universe is presented.

_{0}~ 10

^{4}–10

^{6}cm

^{−3}, RPT is the second order on scale E ~ 10

^{16}GeV, and the generation of a new phase continuously occurs. The Universe born out of “nothing” in an anisotropic state (for example, Bianchi type IX) relaxed quickly to some equilibrium state including metric. We considered a quantitative model of the RPT [SU(5)]

_{SUSY}→[U(1)xU(2)xSU(3)]

_{SUSY}. A chain of phase transitions in the early Universe might be:

_{4}x[SU(5)]

_{SUSY}→D

_{4}x[U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3)]

_{SUSY}→D

_{4}xU(1)xSU(2)xSU(3)→D

_{4}xU(1)xSU(3)→D

_{4}xU(1)

^{19}GeV 10

^{16}GeV 10

^{5}~10

^{10}GeV 100 GeV 0.265 GeV

_{4}is the group of diffeomorphisms corresponding to gravitational interaction; [SU(5)]

_{SUSY}is the group Grand Unification with global super symmetry; U(1)xSU(2)xSU(3) is the group symmetry of Standard Model. The only trace of the first RPT is the initial Λ-term. The remaining RPT are described by modern theories of elementary particles. During RPT, with the cooling of the cosmological plasma, vacuum condensates of quantum fields with a negative energy density were produced p = −ε. Thus, the RPT series was accompanied by the generation of negative contributions to the cosmological Λ-term. At first, a gravitation vacuum condensate (topological defects of different dimensions) was produced which gave a start to beginning time in our Universe. After a large number of oscillations (~10

^{5}), the Universe underwent a tunneling transition in the high-symmetry thermodynamically unstable phase (Figure 2) when expansion in the de Sitter regime became inevitable.

_{II(min)}/a

_{I(max)}] = 2 (N

_{cr}/N

_{0})

^{2/3}

^{5}<N

_{cr}, N

_{cr}≈5 × 10

^{11}cm

^{−3}[7], then the radius increases by a factor of 2 × 10

^{4}as the result of quantum tunneling. This phenomenon can be considered as an analogue of classical inflation. On calculated energy (10

^{16}GeV), we got the number of particles 10

^{60}only. As previously mentioned, the observed particle number ~10

^{88}has been created after multiple cosmological cycles containing all series of relativistic phase transitions [6,7]. It was a slow swell.

_{b}≡ n

_{b}/n

_{γ}= 6.05 × 10

^{−10}

^{16}GeV [14]. It is known that magnetic particles have a huge force attraction. An important dependence was derived by Dirac in the article [15]:

_{m}/α

_{е}≡ (g

^{2}/ħc)/(e

^{2}/ħc) = (34.25)/(1/137) = 4692.25

_{m}/α

_{е}= 18769. J. Schwinger [16] proposed to take only even means for k in the early universe (a more symmetrical case). For the realization of baryon asymmetry of the Universe, it is necessary to carry out Sakharov’s conditions [17]:

- (1)
- nonconservation of baryon number B;
- (2)
- violation of C and CP symmetries;
- (3)
- violation of thermodynamical equilibrium.

_{b.}Note, that standard scenario [13] gives only η

_{В}~ 10

^{-6}. We hope that the introduction of magnetic monopoles in composition of gauge bosons with mass 10

^{16}GeV will give Ƞ

_{b}~ 10

^{−10}for the decay of the dyon and the antidyon-lepto-quarks [14]. The ideology of baryon asymmetry creation can be found in the early reviews [18,19] and in the recent book [20]. In any case, the baryon asymmetry in the Universe furnishes clear evidence that a new physics is called for beyond the standard model of physics of particles and the standard cosmological model.

## 3. Dark Energy

**w ≡ p/ρ = −1**during the evolution of the Universe. It lost more than 32 orders of magnitude in temperature. A quintessence period is connected with evolution of dark energy on 78 orders. The cosmological constant (Λ-term) problem existed for many years, because there was not an understanding of its vast reduction by 123 orders of magnitude [21]. The problem was even called a crisis of physics. Indeed, this crisis existed before the introduction of the holographic principle [22] and entropic force [23] in physics. A cosmological constant was introduced by Einstein [24] in his field equation as a property of space to preserve a static universe:

_{μν}− (1/2) R g

_{μν}+ Λ g

_{μν}= −8π G

_{N}T

_{μν}

**p = −ρ**is a stable state of quantum fields without any excitation of wave modes (nonwave modes are condensates). Consequently, the vacuum of the Universe consists of quantum field condensates that are diluted and, of course, fluctuate during its expansion. The energy density of the present vacuum at red shift z = 0 differs significantly from the energy density at the birth of the Universe, i.e., at z = ∞:

**ρ**

_{DE}~10

^{−47}(GeV)

^{4}for z = 0 and

**ρ**

_{DE}~2 × 10

^{76}(GeV)

^{4}for z = ∞

**ρ**

_{DE}≤ 3 M

_{pl}

^{2}/8πR

^{2}

_{pl}is the Planck mass. In addition, J. Bekenstein [31] showed that the entropy (the number of microstates) of a black hole is 1/4 of the area of the event horizon expressed in Planck units. The idea of a similarity in the thermodynamics of a black hole in special coordinates to the thermodynamics of a de Sitter universe belonging to S. Hawking [32] turned out to be very useful, as did Jacobson’s idea [33] that gravity on the macroscopic scale is a manifestation of vacuum thermodynamics. We used these ideas to solve the Λ-term problem.

**ρ**

_{Pl}/

**ρ**

_{QCD}~ (M

_{Pl}/M

_{QCD})

^{4}= (1.22 × 10

^{19}/0.265)

^{4}~ 4.5 × 10

^{78}

^{−2}GeV

^{4}, or 10

^{16}g cm

^{−3}. By now (z = 0) the vacuum energy must diminish further by a factor of

**ρ**

_{QCD}/

**ρ**

_{DE}≈ (0.265/1.8 × 10

^{−12})

^{4}≈ 5 × 10

^{44}to quench all 123 orders. How can the vacuum energy losses by 44 orders of magnitudes be obtained and what process is “guilty” of this? We have a physical basis, the entropic force that emerges as the Universe expands, and Hawking’s assertion about a similarity of the thermodynamics of a de Sitter Universe to the thermodynamics of a black hole. In addition, the authors of [30] argue that the entropy of the Universe is bound by its surface measured in Planck units: S≤ πR

^{2}M

_{Pl}

^{2}. This surface serves as a holographic screen. In the holographic limit the vacuum energy density of the Universe is then related to the entropy by a very simple formula,

**ρ**= 3M

_{Pl}

^{4}/8S, that for calculations in the classical regime is:

**ρ**(z) = (3/8) M

_{pl}

^{4}[R

_{QCD}/R(z)]

^{2}(GeV)

^{4}

**ρ**(0) = 0.375 × 10

^{−47}GeV

^{4}if R(0) = 10

^{28}cm. In the classical regime of evolution, the vacuum energy could be reduced by a factor of (3/8)(10

^{28}/3 × 10

^{4})

^{2}≈ 4 × 10

^{46}in 4 × 10

^{17}s. If the beginning of classical (Friedmann) evolution is taken at a size of 3 × 10

^{5}cm, then we will have a coincidence of the reduction in vacuum energy with the “required” value:

^{28}/3 × 10

^{5})

^{2}≈ 4 × 10

^{44}

_{QCD}= 3 × 10

^{5}cm and R= 10

^{28}cm, can be causal horizons in the holographic thermodynamics of the Universe. Einstein’s equations are obtained from the proportionality of the entropy to the event horizon, given the Clausius fundamental relation dS=dQ/T, where dS is the change in entropy, dQ is the change in energy flow through the horizon, and T is the Unruh temperature seen by an accelerated observer inside the horizon [30]. In a de Sitter Universe, the event horizon coincides with the apparent horizon. Some cosmological models dispense with the event horizon, but the apparent horizon always exists. Finally, the dark energy of our universe has evolved from the Planck time until now. The Universe lost ~123 (4 × 10

^{78}× 4 × 10

^{44}) orders in this form of energy during 4 × 10

^{17}s in the process of creating new microstates as it expanded (in the quantum regime the phase transitions were more effective in this reduction). Thus, the crisis of physics related to the cosmological constant that lasted for many decades can be overcome. There are also other dark energy models. Besides, the dark energy may not be a pure vacuum energy, but probably, has a small admixture of a scalar field [37]. Some experiments on dark energy have been prepared and an international consortium exists—www.darkenergysurvey.org. The Dark Energy Camera will remain mounted on the Blanco telescope at Cerro Tololo (Chile) for another five to 10 years and will continue to be a useful instrument for scientific collaborations around the world.

## 4. Dark Matter

Particle | Preon Composition | Electric Charge |

Positron | + + + | +1 |

Down quark | − □□ | −1/3 |

Upper antiquark | − − □ | −2/3 |

Electronic antineutrino | □□□ | 0 |

W^{+} | + + + 0 0 0 | +1 |

γ | + − | 0 |

^{α}

_{L}D

^{α}

_{L}and the scalar preons of quark φ

^{iα}

_{a}type and lepton χ

^{α}

_{l}type. Then, in this model, the internal structure of elementary particles is:

^{i}

_{La}= U

^{α}

_{L}φ

_{a}

^{+iαa}u

^{i}

_{La}= (u

^{i}

_{L}, c

^{i}

_{L}, t

^{i}

_{L})

^{i}

_{La}= D

^{α}

_{L}φ

_{a}

^{+iαa}d

^{i}

_{La}= (d

^{i}

_{L}, s

^{i}

_{L}, b

^{i}

_{L})

^{i}

_{Ll}= U

^{α}

_{L}χ

^{α}

_{l}ν

^{i}

_{Ll}= ν

_{Le}, ν

_{Lμ}, ν

_{Lτ}

^{i}

_{Ll}= D

^{α}

_{L}χ

^{α}

_{l}l

^{i}

_{Ll}= (e

_{L}, μ

_{L}, τ

_{L})

^{ω}

_{μν}and the scalar preon fields are in the state of confinement. This effect is similar by its physical nature to the confinement of quarks and gluons inside hadrons, providing the existence of nonperturbative metagluonic and preon condensates. These condensates are described by the following:

_{mc}/π) G

^{ω}

_{μν}G

^{μν}

_{ω}I0> ~ Λ

_{mc}

^{4}

_{a}

^{+iα}φ

_{b}

^{iα}I0> = V

_{ab}~ − Λ

_{mc}

^{2}

_{l}

^{+α}χ

^{α}

_{m}I0> = V

_{lm}~ − Λ

_{mc}

^{2}

_{mc}is the energy scale of preon confinement, V

_{ab}, V

_{lm}are the condensate matrices. The condensates (15) and (16), together with the gluonic condensates <0I(α

_{c}/π) G

^{a}

_{μν}G

^{μν}

_{a}I0>and the quark condensates $\langle \mathrm{OI}{\overline{q}}_{L}{q}_{R}+{\overline{q}}_{R}{q}_{L}\mathrm{IO}\rangle $ provide a quark mass creation mechanism for all three particle generations. In the framework of this theory, DM is a system of familon collective excitations of the heterogeneous nonperturbative vacuum. This system consists of three subsystems: (1) familons of the upper-quark type; (2) familons of the lower-quark type; (3) familons of the lepton type. Small masses of familons are the result of super weak interactions of Goldstone fields with nonperturbative vacuum condensates. The value of these masses is limited:

**m**

_{astrophys}.~ 10^{−3}–10^{−5}eV; m_{laborat}.<10 eV._{c}~ m

_{familons}~ 0.1–10

^{5}K, a Goldstone condensate is produced and the symmetry of familon gas spontaneously breaks. The negative square mass of the complex scalar field means that for T < T

_{c(up)}~

`│`m

_{f}

`│`pseudo-Goldstone vacuum is unstable that is when T = T

_{c(up)}in gas of pseudo-Goldstone bosons there should be a relativistic phase transition to a state with spontaneous breaking U(1) symmetry. The phase transition in the cosmological familon gas is a first-order phase transition with a wide temperature range of phase coexistence. A numerical simulation of such relativistic phase transition has shown [41] that a spatial interchange of high-symmetry and low-symmetry phases took place in the Universe with the density contrast

**δρ/ρ**~ 0.1. Of course, the thermodynamic temperature of the familon gas does not necessarily coincide with the thermodynamic temperature of all other subsystems of the Universe. In the modern epoch, this fact can manifest itself in that the temperature of the familon gas as a part of dark matter can differ from the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) temperature). To explain the scale hierarchy of baryon structures, our model implements at least three relativistic phase transitions since there are three familon subsystems in the Universe [41]. Baryons repeated this block-phase structure which produced particles of DM (familons). Eventually, they produced: galaxies, clusters of galaxies and superclusters of galaxies. The formation of primary galactic nuclei during phase transitions in the early Universe was discussed in the article [42]. Probably, dark matter medium must be a multi component system as and the Standard Model.

## 5. Conclusions

^{−15}to 10

^{15}GeV, while the cross section for their interaction with nucleons and the cross-section for their annihilation into SM particles can occupy the range 10

^{−76}–10

^{−41}cm

^{2}[46]. Light, weak interacting massive particles (WIMP) search conducts in collaboration CDEX - China Dark Matter Experiment [47]. They have provided the limit on the mass of WIMP m

_{χ}< 6 GeV/c

^{2}. In our review we did not discuss a darkogenesis, in which the asymmetric dark matter was produced the same mechanism as and the baryon component [48,49]. In the recent article [50] authors proposed the next generation of colliders may open dark matter particles for evaporation of microscopic black holes through Hawking radiation.

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 2.**The cosmological solution for the closed Universe for the initial number of particles N

_{0}« N

_{cr}. Branch I is the Friedmann solution distorted by Λ-term. Branch II is the de Sitter solution distorted by matter. The units of time and scale factor are: t

_{0}= 3.5 × 10

^{−38}s, a

_{0}= 1.5 × 10

^{−27}cm.

**Figure 3.**The dependence of wave function of the universe factorized by the separate function U(a) from scale factor a.

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Burdyuzha, V.V.
From the Early Universe to the Modern Universe. *Symmetry* **2020**, *12*, 382.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030382

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Burdyuzha VV.
From the Early Universe to the Modern Universe. *Symmetry*. 2020; 12(3):382.
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Burdyuzha, V. V.
2020. "From the Early Universe to the Modern Universe" *Symmetry* 12, no. 3: 382.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12030382