# Design and Control of a Wall Cleaning Robot with Adhesion-Awareness

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Design of Wall-C

## 3. Improving Safety and Reliability Based on Adhesion-Awareness

#### 3.1. Rationale behind Controlling Adhesion

#### 3.2. An Adhesion-Awareness Based Control Strategy to Improve Safety and Reliability

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Experimental Setup

#### 4.2. Experiment and Results

## 5. Conclusions

## Supplementary Materials

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

- Aboulnaga, M.M. High-Rise Buildings in Context of Sustainability; Urban Metaphors of Greater Cairo, Egypt: A Case Study on Sustainability and Strategic Environmental Assessment. In Sustainable High Rise Buildings in Urban Zones; Springer: Cham, Switzerland, 2017; pp. 163–217. [Google Scholar]
- Ahlfeldt, G.M.; McMillen, D.P. Tall buildings and land values: Height and construction cost elasticities in Chicago, 1870–2010. Rev. Econ. Stat.
**2018**, 100, 861–875. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wordsworth, P.; Lee, R. Lee’s Building Maintenance Management; Blackwell Science: London, UK, 2001. [Google Scholar]
- Tun, T.T.; Huang, L.; Mohan, R.E.; Matthew, S.G.H. Four-wheel steering and driving mechanism for a reconfigurable floor cleaning robot. Autom. Constr.
**2019**, 106, 102796. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Bai, J.; Lian, S.; Liu, Z.; Wang, K.; Liu, D. Deep learning based robot for automatically picking up garbage on the grass. IEEE Trans. Consum. Electron.
**2018**, 64, 382–389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Abramson, S.; Levin, A.; Levin, S.; Gur, D. Window Cleaning Robot. US Patent 10,383,492, 20 August 2019. [Google Scholar]
- Ilyas, M.; Yuyao, S.; Mohan, R.E.; Devarassu, M.; Kalimuthu, M. Design of sTetro: A modular, reconfigurable, and autonomous staircase cleaning robot. J. Sens.
**2018**, 2018, 8190802. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Kim, J.; Mishra, A.K.; Limosani, R.; Scafuro, M.; Cauli, N.; Santos-Victor, J.; Mazzolai, B.; Cavallo, F. Control strategies for cleaning robots in domestic applications: A comprehensive review. Int. J. Adv. Robot. Syst.
**2019**, 16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Hon, C.K.; Chan, A.P. Safety management in repair, maintenance, minor alteration, and addition works: Knowledge management perspective. J. Manag. Eng.
**2013**, 30, 04014026. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Cardini, E.; Sohn, E.C. Above and Beyond: Access Techniques for the Assessment of Buildings and Structures. In AEI 2013: Building Solutions for Architectural Engineering; American Society of Civil Engineers: Reston, VA, USA, 2013; pp. 306–320. [Google Scholar]
- Schmidt, D.; Berns, K. Climbing robots for maintenance and inspections of vertical structures—A survey of design aspects and technologies. Robot. Auton. Syst.
**2013**, 61, 1288–1305. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Nansai, S.; Elara, M.; Tun, T.; Veerajagadheswar, P.; Pathmakumar, T. A novel nested reconfigurable approach for a glass façade cleaning robot. Inventions
**2017**, 2, 18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Sun, G.; Li, X.; Li, P.; Yue, L.; Yu, Z.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, Y.H. Adaptive Vision-Based Control for Rope-Climbing Robot Manipulator. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Macau, China, 4–8 November 2019; pp. 1454–1459. [Google Scholar]
- Seo, K.; Cho, S.; Kim, T.; Kim, H.S.; Kim, J. Design and stability analysis of a novel wall-climbing robotic platform (ROPE RIDE). Mech. Mach. Theory
**2013**, 70, 189–208. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Jiang, J.-G.; Zhang, Y.; Shu, Z. Implementation of glass-curtain-wall cleaning robot driven by double flexible rope. Ind. Robot Int. J.
**2014**, 41, 429–438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Moon, S.M.; Hong, D.; Kim, S.W.; Park, S. Building wall maintenance robot based on built-in guide rail. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology, Athens, Greece, 19–21 March 2012; pp. 498–503. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, Y.S.; Kim, S.H.; Gil, M.S.; Lee, S.H.; Kang, M.S.; Jang, S.H.; Yu, B.H.; Ryu, B.G.; Hong, D.; Han, C.S. The study on the integrated control system for curtain wall building façade cleaning robot. Autom. Constr.
**2018**, 94, 39–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Zhang, H.; Zhang, J.; Zong, G.; Wang, W.; Liu, R. Sky cleaner 3: A real pneumatic climbing robot for glass-wall cleaning. IEEE Robot. Autom. Mag.
**2006**, 13, 32–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Tun, T.T.; Elara, M.R.; Kalimuthu, M.; Vengadesh, A. Glass facade cleaning robot with passive suction cups and self-locking trapezoidal lead screw drive. Autom. Constr.
**2018**, 96, 180–188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Wang, W.; Wang, K.; Zong, G.H.; Li, D.Z. Principle and experiment of vibrating suction method for wall-climbing robot. Vacuum
**2010**, 85, 107–112. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Nansai, S.; Mohan, R.E. A survey of wall climbing robots: Recent advances and challenges. Robotics
**2016**, 5, 14. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version] - Anand, T.; Kushwaha, S.K.; Roslin, S.E.; Nandhitha, N. Flux controlled BLDC motor for automated glass cleaning robot. In Proceedings of the 2017 Third International Conference on Science Technology Engineering & Management (ICONSTEM), Chennai, India, 23–24 March 2017; pp. 955–959. [Google Scholar]
- Wu, G.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, L. Research on Design of Glass Wall Cleaning Robot. In Proceedings of the 2018 5th International Conference on Information Science and Control Engineering (ICISCE), Zhengzhou, China, 20–22 July 2018; pp. 932–935. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, G.; Kim, H.; Seo, K.; Kim, J.; Kim, H.S. MultiTrack: A multi-linked track robot with suction adhesion for climbing and transition. Robot. Auton. Syst.
**2015**, 72, 207–216. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Vega-Heredia, M.; Mohan, R.E.; Wen, T.Y.; Siti’Aisyah, J.; Vengadesh, A.; Ghanta, S.; Vinu, S. Design and modelling of a modular window cleaning robot. Autom. Constr.
**2019**, 103, 268–278. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Miyake, T.; Ishihara, H.; Yoshimura, M. Basic studies on wet adhesion system for wall climbing robots. In Proceedings of the 2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems, San Diego, CA, USA, 29 October–2 November 2007; pp. 1920–1925. [Google Scholar]
- Brusell, A.; Andrikopoulos, G.; Nikolakopoulos, G. Novel considerations on the negative pressure adhesion of electric ducted fans: An experimental study. In Proceedings of the 2017 25th Mediterranean Conference on Control and Automation (MED), Valletta, Malta, 3–6 July 2017; pp. 1404–1409. [Google Scholar]
- Xu, D.; Gao, X.; Wu, X.; Fan, N.; Li, K.; Kikuchi, K. Suction ability analyses of a novel wall climbing robot. In Proceedings of the 2006 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Biomimetics, Kunming, China, 17–20 December 2006; pp. 1506–1511. [Google Scholar]
- Li, J.; Gao, X.; Fan, N.; Li, K.; Jiang, Z. BIT Climber: A centrifugal impeller-based wall climbing robot. In Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Mechatronics and Automation, Changchun, China, 9–12 August 2009; pp. 4605–4609. [Google Scholar]
- Andrikopoulos, G.; Papadimitriou, A.; Brusell, A.; Nikolakopoulos, G. On Model-Based Adhesion Control of a Vortex Climbing Robot. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Macau, China, 4–8 November 2019; pp. 1460–1465. [Google Scholar]
- Muthugala, M.A.V.J.; Vega-Herdia, M.; Ayyalusami, V.; Sriharsha, G.; Elara, M.R. Design of an Adhesion-Aware Facade Cleaning Robot. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS), Macau, China, 4–8 November 2019; pp. 1441–1447. [Google Scholar]
- Zadeh, L.A. Is there a need for fuzzy logic? Inf. Sci.
**2008**, 178, 2751–2779. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - De Silva, C.W. Intelligent Control: Fuzzy Logic Applications; CRC Press: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2018. [Google Scholar]
- Ross, T.J. Fuzzy Logic with Engineering Applications; John Wiley & Sons: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Lee, C.C. Fuzzy logic in control systems: Fuzzy logic controller. II. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybern.
**1990**, 20, 419–435. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] - Chen, C.; Modares, H.; Xie, K.; Lewis, F.L.; Wan, Y.; Xie, S. Reinforcement learning-based adaptive optimal exponential tracking control of linear systems with unknown dynamics. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control
**2019**, 64, 4423–4438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]

**Figure 3.**Signal and power supply architecture of Wall-C. The orange arrows represent the power supply and the blue ones data communication.

**Figure 5.**Force distribution of a robot with vacuum based adhesion. The variables and symbols are defined as follows. ${P}_{A}$: atmospheric pressure; ${P}_{I}$: pressure of the inside chamber; ${F}_{P}$: adhesion force acting on the robot toward the wall; ${N}_{R}$: orthogonal reaction force acted on the robot; $\Sigma {f}_{R}$: summation of friction forces between the robot and the wall; $2h$: the robot’s height; m: mass; g: acceleration of gravity; and ${C}_{{g}_{x}}$: horizontal displacement of center of gravity of the robot.

**Figure 7.**(

**a**) Input membership function for the pressure difference, P. (

**b**) Input membership function for the present impeller power, C. (

**c**) Membership function for the output, required impeller power (i.e., R). The fuzzy labels are defined as VL: very low, L: low, M: medium, H: high, and VH: very high.

**Figure 8.**Fuzzy decision surface: expected variation of the output with the two inputs; pressure difference and present impeller power.

**Figure 9.**Experimental setups: (

**a**) A typical wall surface. (

**b**) A wall surface with two vertical negative dents of different depths. Both dents had a width of 3 mm. However, the depth of the first dent was 10 mm, and the second dent did not have a bottom (i.e., an open gap). (

**c**) A metal wall surface with an uneven curvature.

**Figure 10.**Variation of pressure difference (P) and impeller power (R) when the robot moves from O to ${O}^{\prime}$ on the typical wall surface (situation shown in Figure 9a).

**Figure 11.**Trajectory of the robot when it was moved toward ${O}^{\prime}$ on the typical wall (situation shown in Figure 9a). The initial position of the marker is considered as the origin of x-y coordinate system; x: horizontal axis and y: vertical axis. It should be noted that the x and y axes are given in pixels, and one pixel represents 1.8 mm.

**Figure 12.**Variation of pressure difference (P) and impeller power (R) when the robot moved from O to ${O}^{\prime}$ on the wall’s surface with two vertical negative dents (situation shown in Figure 9b). The distance axis was extrapolated after falls by assuming the distance moved was proportional to time.

**Figure 13.**Trajectory of the robot when it was moved toward ${O}^{\prime}$ on the wall’s surface with two vertical negative dents (situation shown in Figure 9b). The initial position of the marker is considered the origin of x-y coordinate system; x: horizontal axis and y: vertical axis. It should be noted that the x and y axes are given in pixels, and one pixel represents 0.71 mm. The falling off situations are annotated in dashed circles.

**Figure 14.**Variation of pressure difference (P) and impeller power (R) when the robot moves from O to ${O}^{\prime}$ on a metal wall’s surface with an uneven curvature (situation shown in Figure 9c).

**Figure 15.**Trajectory of the robot when it was moved toward ${O}^{\prime}$ on the metal wall surface with an uneven curvature (situation shown in Figure 9c). The initial position of the marker was considered as the origin of the x-y coordinate system; x—horizontal axis, and y—vertical axis. It should be noted that the x and y axes are given in pixels, and one pixel represents 1.08 mm. The falling off situations are annotated in dashed circles.

i | Rule |
---|---|

1 | If (P is L) and (C is L) then (R is M) |

2 | If (P is L) and (C is M) then (R is H) |

3 | If (P is L) and (C is H) then (R is VH) |

4 | If (P is M) and (C is L) then (R is L) |

5 | If (P is M) and (C is M) then (R is M) |

6 | If (P is M) and (C is H) then (R is H) |

7 | If (P is H) and (C is L) then (R is VL) |

8 | If (P is H) and (C is M) then (R is L) |

9 | If (P is H) and (C is H) then (R is M) |

© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Muthugala, M.A.V.J.; Vega-Heredia, M.; Mohan, R.E.; Vishaal, S.R.
Design and Control of a Wall Cleaning Robot with Adhesion-Awareness. *Symmetry* **2020**, *12*, 122.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12010122

**AMA Style**

Muthugala MAVJ, Vega-Heredia M, Mohan RE, Vishaal SR.
Design and Control of a Wall Cleaning Robot with Adhesion-Awareness. *Symmetry*. 2020; 12(1):122.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12010122

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Muthugala, M. A. Viraj J., Manuel Vega-Heredia, Rajesh Elara Mohan, and Suresh Raj Vishaal.
2020. "Design and Control of a Wall Cleaning Robot with Adhesion-Awareness" *Symmetry* 12, no. 1: 122.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym12010122