In this multidisciplinary research, an LCA/LCC model is developed for assessing the costs, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the pump unit lifecycles in drinking water distribution systems (WDS). The presented methodology includes the pump, motor, and variable frequency drive monitoring as a system (pump unit), through their life-cycle stages: the manufacturing stage, the exploitation stage, and the disposal stage at the end of their life-cycle. The developed model also analyses other processes such as the maintenance, testing, and reconstruction of the pump unit. Demonstration of the presented methodology was performed using the pump unit of an operating WDS system in different scenarios, in order to illustrate the proper application of this model. The obtained results show that the application of pump units is justified in terms of energy consumption. The results also show that 93%–94% of the consumed energy and the LCC costs are related to the pump operating costs, while the rest are related to auxiliary operations. The findings show that various countries can have considerably different prices of electrical energy and different GHG emissions that depend on the source of electric energy. The implemented model incorporates some of the symmetries that are commonly found in the mathematical models of water distribution systems. Finally, the results of pump unit exploitation within the WDS have been used to show the impact of such plants on different levels of energy consumption, GHG emissions, and LCC production.
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