# A Smart 3D RT Method: Indoor Radio Wave Propagation Modelling at 28 GHz

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Ray Concept

## 3. Proposed Smart 3D RT Method

- Firstly, the rays were launched at regular horizontal angle steps of (π/60) radian. For each of the horizontal angles, rays were also launched at regular vertical angle steps of (π/180) radian for pre-calculation to identify the angles whose rays successfully reached the Rx. In the existing method, the horizontal angle steps are used as (π/180) radian. As a result, almost three times more calculation in existing method with compare to the proposed method.
- Secondly, we refined the horizontal corresponding vertical angles directions by adding narrower additional angles for the forward and backward directions in order to ensure more precision rays at potentially successful directions.
- Thirdly, final ray launching at updated angles was conducted to include pre-determined potential directions.
- Fourthly, we traced rays throughout the receiver by applying the theory of transmission, reflection, and diffraction to determine the successful rays that reached the Rx.

## 4. Ray-Based Radio Wave Power Level Modelling

_{n}. For reflections and diffraction phenomena every Rx received several ray paths. The receiver-wise total power level ${E}_{total}$ is the summation of each ray path power, which can be calculated by Equation (10).

## 5. Results Validation and Discussion

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**3D RT simulation of measurement layouts of the Wireless Communication Center (WCC) using (

**a**) SB RT and (

**b**) smart RT method.

**Figure 3.**(

**a**) Path loss, (

**b**) power-level comparison graph among the measurements, 3D SB RT method, and proposed smart 3D RT method.

**Figure 4.**Number of rays received by the receiver: comparison between the 3D SB RT and 3D smart RT methods.

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hossain, F.; Geok, T.K.; Rahman, T.A.; Hindia, M.N.; Dimyati, K.; Tso, C.P.; Kamaruddin, M.N.
A Smart 3D RT Method: Indoor Radio Wave Propagation Modelling at 28 GHz. *Symmetry* **2019**, *11*, 510.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11040510

**AMA Style**

Hossain F, Geok TK, Rahman TA, Hindia MN, Dimyati K, Tso CP, Kamaruddin MN.
A Smart 3D RT Method: Indoor Radio Wave Propagation Modelling at 28 GHz. *Symmetry*. 2019; 11(4):510.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11040510

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hossain, Ferdous, Tan Kim Geok, Tharek Abd Rahman, Mohammad Nour Hindia, Kaharudin Dimyati, Chih P. Tso, and Mohd Nazeri Kamaruddin.
2019. "A Smart 3D RT Method: Indoor Radio Wave Propagation Modelling at 28 GHz" *Symmetry* 11, no. 4: 510.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11040510