Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) is an autologous material used to improve bone regeneration when associated with bone grafts. It affects tissue angiogenesis, increasing the healing process and, theoretically, presenting potential to increase bone neoformation. The aim of this study was to verify, histomorphometrically, the effects of the association of PRF to a xenograft. Twelve adult white New Zealand rabbits were randomly assigned into two groups containing six animals each. After general anesthesia of the animals, two critical defects of 12 mm were created in the rabbit calvaria, one on each side of the sagittal line. Each defect was filled with the following biomaterials: in the control group (CG), xenograft hydrated with saline solution filling one defect and xenograft hydrated with saline solution covered with collagen membrane on the other side; in the test group (TG), xenograft associated with PRF filling the defect of one side and xenograft associated with PRF covered with collagen membrane on the other side. After eight weeks the animals were euthanized and a histomorphometric analysis was performed. The results showed that in the sites that were covered with collagen membrane, there was no statistically significant difference for all the analyzed parameters. However, when comparing the groups without membrane coverage, a statistically significant difference could be observed for the vital mineralized tissue (VMT) and nonmineralized tissue (NMT) parameters, with more VMT in the test group and more NMT in the control group. Regarding the intragroup comparison, the use of the membrane coverage presented significant outcomes in both groups. Therefore, in this experimental model, PRF did not affect the levels of bone formation when a membrane coverage technique was used. However, higher levels of bone formation were observed in the test group when membrane coverage was not used.
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