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Improving Human Motion Classification by Applying Bagging and Symmetry to PCA-Based Features

Institute of Computer Science and Computer Methods, Pedagogical University of Krakow, 2 Podchorazych Ave, 30-084 Krakow, Poland
Symmetry 2019, 11(10), 1264; https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11101264
Received: 24 July 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 10 October 2019
This paper proposes a method for improving human motion classification by applying bagging and symmetry to Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-based features. In contrast to well-known bagging algorithms such as random forest, the proposed method recalculates the motion features for each “weak classifier” (it does not randomly sample a feature set). The proposed classification method was evaluated on a challenging (even to a human observer) motion capture recording dataset of martial arts techniques performed by professional karate sportspeople. The dataset consisted of 360 recordings in 12 motion classes. Because some classes of these motions might be symmetrical (which means that they are performed with a dominant left or right hand/leg), an analysis was conducted to determine whether accounting for symmetry could improve the recognition rate of a classifier. The experimental results show that applying the proposed classifiers’ bagging procedure increased the recognition rate (RR) of the Nearest-Neighbor (NNg) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) classifiers by more than 5% and 3%, respectively. The RR of one trained classifier (SVM) was higher when we did not use symmetry. On the other hand, the application of symmetry information for bagged NNg improved its recognition rate compared with the results without symmetry information. We can conclude that symmetry information might be helpful in situations in which it is not possible to optimize the decision borders of the classifier (for example, when we do not have direct information about class labels). The experiment presented in this paper shows that, in this case, bagging and mirroring might help find a similar object in the training set that shares the same class label. Both the dataset that was used for the evaluation and the implementation of the proposed method can be downloaded, so the experiment is easily reproducible. View Full-Text
Keywords: Classification; Bagging; Motion Capture; Principal Component Analysis; Support Vector Machine; Nearest-Neighbor Classifier; Motion Symmetry Classification; Bagging; Motion Capture; Principal Component Analysis; Support Vector Machine; Nearest-Neighbor Classifier; Motion Symmetry
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Hachaj, T. Improving Human Motion Classification by Applying Bagging and Symmetry to PCA-Based Features. Symmetry 2019, 11, 1264.

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