Next Article in Journal
A New Pairwise NPN Boolean Matching Algorithm Based on Structural Difference Signature
Next Article in Special Issue
Interaction between Floral Merism and Symmetry: Evidence from Fasciated Mutant of Lupinus angustifolius L. (Leguminosae)
Previous Article in Journal
Reusing Source Task Knowledge via Transfer Approximator in Reinforcement Transfer Learning
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Symmetrical Motifs in Young Children’s Drawings: A Study on Their Representations of Plant Life

Faculty of Education Bilbao, University of the Basque Country (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena, s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain
Faculty of Science and Technology, University of the Basque Country, (UPV/EHU), Barrio Sarriena, s/n, 48940 Leioa, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Symmetry 2019, 11(1), 26;
Received: 16 October 2018 / Revised: 17 December 2018 / Accepted: 24 December 2018 / Published: 29 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Floral Symmetry)
PDF [2749 KB, uploaded 10 January 2019]


Young children love drawing; this is without question. Besides that, drawings are also of interest to scholars and educators, since they seem to provide food for thought regarding children’s conceptual development during their early education. Different approaches are taken when it comes to analysing children’s drawings but insufficient attention has been given to the issue of the spontaneous depictions of symmetrical motifs in young children’s drawings. This pictorial phenomena might not go unnoticed by parents and teachers but the fact is that the scientific community has no reliable data regarding how children under 8 naturally draw symmetrical patterns to express themselves graphically. Accordingly, the present study analyses 116 drawings undertaken by children between 4 and 7 on a well-known natural issue in early childhood such as plant life. Pictorial motifs displaying both cyclic and dihedral symmetries were found in the pictorial sample under examination and the data gathered is put in perspective with the gender and educational level variables. The results of the study show that symmetry, particularly, dihedral symmetry, is a very common pictorial practice in the sample and, also, that the occurrence of symmetrical motifs displays a relationship with the independent variables considered in the study. View Full-Text
Keywords: drawing; early education; biological phenomena; symmetry; flora drawing; early education; biological phenomena; symmetry; flora

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Villarroel, J.D.; Merino, M.; Antón, Á. Symmetrical Motifs in Young Children’s Drawings: A Study on Their Representations of Plant Life. Symmetry 2019, 11, 26.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Symmetry EISSN 2073-8994 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top