# A New Pairwise NPN Boolean Matching Algorithm Based on Structural Difference Signature

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Related Works

## 3. Terminology and Notation

**Definition**

**1.**

## 4. The Proposed Algorithm

#### 4.1. Boolean Difference

**Definition**

**2.**

**Example**

**1.**

**Definition**

**3.**

**Definition**

**4.**

**Lemma**

**1.**

**Proof.**

**Property**

**1.**

**Proof.**

**Example**

**2.**

**Definition**

**5.**

**Definition**

**6.**

**Definition**

**7.**

#### 4.2. SDS-Based Boolean Matching Algorithm

Procedure 1 NPN Boolean Matching. |

Input:f and gOutput: 0 or 1function Matching($f,g$)Create BDD of f and g $sp\_f=bddtrue,sp\_g=bddtrue,trans\_list=NULL$ Compute $\left|f\right|$ and $\left|g\right|$ if $\left|f\right|=\left|g\right|$ thenif $\left|f\right|\ne |\overline{g}|$ thenReturn Handle_SDS($f,g$) elseif Handle_SDS($f,g$)=1 thenReturn 1 elseReturn Handle_SDS(f,$\overline{g}$) end ifend ifelseif $\left|f\right|=|\overline{g}|$ thenReturn Handle_SDS(f,$\overline{g}$) elseReturn 0 end ifend ifend function |

Procedure 2 recursive_search. |

Input:f, g, $sp\_f$, $sp\_g$, and $trans\_list$Output: 0 or 1function handle_SDS($f,g,sp\_f,sp\_g,trans\_list$)if ${D}_{1}$ thenreturn VERIFY($f,g,T$) end ifUPDATE($f,g,sp\_f,sp\_g$) if ${V}_{f}\ne {V}_{g}$ thenreturn 0 end ifif ${D}_{2}$ thenCompute ${D}_{f}$ and ${D}_{g}$ if $NotEmpty\left({D}_{f}\right)$ thenAdd independent mappings to $trans\_list$ end ifend if$min\_number$=32768 for all ${x}_{i}\in f\left(x\right)$ doif ${D}_{3}$ thenContinue end iffor all ${x}_{j}\in g\left(x\right)$ doSearch variable mappings end forCompute ${\chi}_{i}\left({S}_{i}\right)$ if ${D}_{4}$ thenfor all ${\phi}_{j}\left({\psi}_{j}\right)\in {\chi}_{i}\left({S}_{i}\right)$ doif ${D}_{5}$ thenreturn 0 elseAdd ${\phi}_{j}\left({\psi}_{j}\right)$ to $trans\_list$ end ifend for$min\_number=1$ elseif $|{\chi}_{i}\left|\right(|{S}_{i}\left|\right)<min\_number$ then$min=i$ end ifend ifend forif ${D}_{6}$ thenUpdate $sp\_f$ and $sp\_g$ Return Handle_SDS($f,g,sp\_f,sp\_g,trans\_list$) elsefor all ${\phi}_{j}\left({\psi}_{j}\right)\in {\chi}_{min}\left({S}_{min}\right)$ doif ${D}_{5}$ thencontinue elseAdd ${\phi}_{j}\left({\psi}_{j}\right)$ to $trans\_list$ Update $sp\_f$ and $sp\_g$ Return Handle_SDS($f,g,sp\_f,sp\_g,trans\_list$) end ifend forReturn 0 end ifend function |

**Example**

**3.**

## 5. Experimental Results

## 6. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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#I | #B.N. | #C.N. | #D.N. | #R.T. | #B.N. of [5] | #C.N. of [5] | #D.N. of [5] | #R.T. of [5] | #R.T. of [6] |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

7 | 2.2 | 2.1 | 3.2 | 0.00024 | 4.6 | 2.8 | 4.1 | 0.00024 | 0.00067 |

8 | 2.1 | 1.9 | 3.4 | 0.00022 | 9.2 | 3.7 | 4.9 | 0.00030 | 0.00091 |

9 | 3.7 | 2.2 | 3.6 | 0.00034 | 11.5 | 7.1 | 5.0 | 0.00047 | 0.00099 |

10 | 1.9 | 1.8 | 3.5 | 0.00027 | 15.0 | 14.1 | 5.3 | 0.00074 | 0.00123 |

11 | 7.8 | 7.7 | 3.3 | 0.00059 | 19.4 | 19.2 | 4.2 | 0.00053 | 0.00228 |

12 | 2.1 | 2.1 | 3.2 | 0.00032 | 6.7 | 6.6 | 3.8 | 0.00146 | 0.00585 |

13 | 3.3 | 3.2 | 3.2 | 0.00061 | 16.9 | 16.4 | 4.3 | 0.00127 | 0.00638 |

14 | 2.1 | 2.0 | 3.3 | 0.00063 | 8.7 | 7.3 | 4.6 | 0.00217 | 0.02743 |

15 | 1.8 | 1.7 | 3.2 | 0.00079 | 8.2 | 6.9 | 4.6 | 0.00262 | 0.02998 |

16 | 2.5 | 2.4 | 3.5 | 0.00155 | 10.1 | 8.6 | 4.5 | 0.00426 | 0.04310 |

17 | 2.9 | 2.8 | 3.7 | 0.00308 | 9.3 | 8.4 | 4.8 | 0.00784 | 0.05044 |

18 | 2.3 | 2.2 | 3.2 | 0.00445 | 7.0 | 6.1 | 4.6 | 0.02274 | 0.07177 |

19 | 2.4 | 2.3 | 3.1 | 0.00870 | 7.7 | 6.6 | 4.2 | 0.03285 | 0.08870 |

20 | 3.0 | 2.9 | 3.6 | 0.02069 | 7.5 | 6.4 | 4.9 | 0.04337 | 0.13250 |

21 | 2.1 | 2.1 | 3.2 | 0.02879 | 9.6 | 8.6 | 4.3 | 0.11471 | 0.17362 |

22 | 3.8 | 3.8 | 3.6 | 0.10301 | 8.7 | 7.7 | 5.1 | 0.20554 | 0.30469 |

#I | #B.N. | #C.N. | #D.N. | #R.T. | #B.N. of [5] | #C.N. of [5] | #D.N. of [5] | #R.T. of [5] | #R.T. of [6] |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

7 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.5 | 0.00014 | 1.3 | 1.0 | 1.8 | 0.00012 | 0.00121 |

8 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 3.2 | 0.00042 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 3.5 | 0.00035 | 0.00146 |

9 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 1.8 | 0.00034 | 1.6 | 1.5 | 2.4 | 0.00051 | 0.00186 |

10 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.3 | 0.00060 | 3.4 | 1.5 | 1.5 | 0.00063 | 0.00193 |

11 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.3 | 0.00074 | 1.4 | 1.4 | 2.6 | 0.00078 | 0.00243 |

12 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.3 | 0.00080 | 1.3 | 1.2 | 1.7 | 0.00091 | 0.00255 |

13 | 1.1 | 1.0 | 2.5 | 0.00467 | 1.3 | 1.1 | 3.8 | 0.00447 | 0.00535 |

14 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.4 | 0.00401 | 1.2 | 1.1 | 2.0 | 0.00368 | 0.01245 |

15 | 1.4 | 1.3 | 2.0 | 0.00569 | 1.7 | 1.5 | 3.1 | 0.00475 | 0.04077 |

16 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 1.9 | 0.01346 | 2.0 | 1.6 | 3.2 | 0.00151 | 0.04849 |

17 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.5 | 0.10502 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 2.2 | 0.11518 | 0.31644 |

18 | 1.1 | 1.0 | 1.5 | 0.10944 | 1.5 | 1.5 | 2.5 | 0.23394 | 0.64273 |

19 | 1.8 | 1.8 | 2.6 | 0.80747 | 5.5 | 5.3 | 4.4 | 0.89123 | 1.62971 |

20 | 1.3 | 1.3 | 2.1 | 1.00309 | 2.9 | 2.8 | 2.7 | 1.28156 | 2.13035 |

21 | 1.3 | 1.3 | 1.5 | 3.73072 | 1.7 | 1.5 | 2.7 | 3.71382 | 10.2122 |

22 | 1.6 | 1.6 | 1.7 | 6.50130 | 2.8 | 2.7 | 3.1 | 6.24368 | 11.2760 |

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## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Zhang, J.; Yang, G.; Hung, W.N.N.; Wu, J.; Zhu, Y. A New Pairwise NPN Boolean Matching Algorithm Based on Structural Difference Signature. *Symmetry* **2019**, *11*, 27.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010027

**AMA Style**

Zhang J, Yang G, Hung WNN, Wu J, Zhu Y. A New Pairwise NPN Boolean Matching Algorithm Based on Structural Difference Signature. *Symmetry*. 2019; 11(1):27.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010027

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Zhang, Juling, Guowu Yang, William N. N. Hung, Jinzhao Wu, and Yixin Zhu. 2019. "A New Pairwise NPN Boolean Matching Algorithm Based on Structural Difference Signature" *Symmetry* 11, no. 1: 27.
https://doi.org/10.3390/sym11010027