Peptides and peptidomimetics have attracted revived interest regarding their applications in chemical biology over the last few years. Their chemical versatility, synthetic accessibility and the ease of storage and management compared to full proteins have made peptides particularly interesting in diagnostic applications, where they proved to efficiently recapitulate the molecular recognition properties of larger protein antigens, and were proven to be able to capture antibodies circulating in the plasma and serum of patients previously exposed to bacterial or viral infections. Here, we describe the development, integration and application of strategies for computational prediction and design, advanced chemical synthesis, and diagnostic deployment in multiplexed assays of peptide-based materials which are able to bind antibodies of diagnostic as well as therapeutic interest. By presenting successful applications of such an integrated strategy, we argue that they will have an ever-increasing role in both basic and clinical realms of research, where important advances can be expected in the next few years.
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