From Tactical Urbanism Action to Institutionalised Urban Planning and Educational Tool: The Evolution of Park(ing) Day
1.1. Context of Car-Free Movements
1.2. Park(ing) Day Origins as Tactical Urbanism Action
1.3. From Park(ing) Day to Institutionalised ‘Pavement to Parks’ Policy
1.4. Development of ‘Pavement to Parks’ as Permanent Park(ing) Day
2. Materials and Methods
- Desk research and secondary data analysis . The analysis of data from press coverage and official press releases, as well as data provided by institutions, groups and activists responsible for the organisation of PD in respective cities, was undertaken. This included photographic archives provided by Wellington Sculpture Trust, the organising body for Wellington PD.
- Semi-structured expert interviews. The otherwise open format of interviews included several fixed components, including questions on: the overall number of PD editions in a certain city; the initiation of the event; the organisational structure; organisational and financial support from institutions (namely the city councils); the particular expert’s involvement; additional topics and themes (other than the original PD theme of quality of public space and dominance of cars). The intention was to interview at least one expert from each city in Poland and New Zealand in which PD was organised. The interview process planned for March–April 2020 was shaped by the consequences of national lockdowns in Poland and New Zealand. Most interviews were carried out via distance and included exchange of emails, instant messaging and phone calls.
- Research by design [40,41,42] and participant observation [38,43,44]. Authors of the article have been involved in organisation and design (K. Herman PD, Warsaw, Poland, 2009–2011) or design (K. Herman, M. Rodgers PD, Wellington 2020) of PD events and installations. Research through art and design is material-based research, development work and active research through practical experiments . Participants in the design process are placed in the position to creatively exchange, collaborate and develop new knowledge together . Both K. Herman and M. Rodgers have also analysed several other PD events as observers and casual participants employing the participant observation method, which allows the researcher to obtain first-hand knowledge and to ’get close to the data’, thereby developing the analytical, conceptual, and categorical components of explanation from the data itself .
3.1. Case Study: Park(ing) Day in Poland
3.2. Case Study: Park(ing) Day in New Zealand
4.1. The Institutionalisation of Park(ing) Day and the Criticism of Parklets
4.2. Tactical Urbanism and the Extension of Pedestrian Spaces During COVID19 Pandemic
4.3. Park(ing) Day: Towards an Educational Tool for Architects and Landscape Architects
Conflicts of Interest
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|Method||Data/Information Source||Number of Instances/Objects|
|Desk research/secondary data analysis||Press coverage, archives, websites||25 events in 7 cities in New Zealand|
|49 events in 15 cities in Poland|
|Semi-structured expert interviews||Face to face meetings, phone calls and online exchanges (email, instant messaging)||14 experts from 6 cities in New Zealand|
|17 experts from 15 cities in Poland|
|Research by Design||Participation in the design and building process||1 PD installation in Wellington, NZ(2020)|
|4 PD installations in Warsaw, PL (2009–2011)|
|Participant observation||Observation, incidental conversation, engagement||2 PD events in New Zealand (2019–2020)|
|5 PD events in Poland (2009–2012)|
|Łódź||15||30||~25 ^||~25 ^||^||^|
|Wellington||1 +||25||c||22 *||17 *||19 *||25 *||~25||22 *|
|Auckland||5 +||10 +||6 +||6 +||8 +||8 +||8 +||50 s||40 s|
|Tauranga and Mt. Maunganui||3|
|Inspired Directly by the First PD (Lawn + Seat + Plants)||Publicity for a Cause||Art/Craft Created or Being Created||Encouraging Participation by Public||Performance||Recreation of Nature|
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Herman, K.; Rodgers, M. From Tactical Urbanism Action to Institutionalised Urban Planning and Educational Tool: The Evolution of Park(ing) Day. Land 2020, 9, 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070217
Herman K, Rodgers M. From Tactical Urbanism Action to Institutionalised Urban Planning and Educational Tool: The Evolution of Park(ing) Day. Land. 2020; 9(7):217. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070217Chicago/Turabian Style
Herman, Krzysztof, and Maria Rodgers. 2020. "From Tactical Urbanism Action to Institutionalised Urban Planning and Educational Tool: The Evolution of Park(ing) Day" Land 9, no. 7: 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070217