Special Issue "Landscape Architecture Education and Professional Practice and Its Future Challenges in Landscape Design, Planning, Conservation and Management"

A special issue of Land (ISSN 2073-445X).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2021).

Special Issue Editors

Dr. Bruno Marques
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Victoria University of Wellington, School of Architecture, PO Box 600, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
2. The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA)
Interests: Integration of Indigenous methods in participatory design and place-making in landscape rehabilitation and ecosystem services
Special Issues and Collections in MDPI journals
Mr. Andreja Tutundžić
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. University of Belgrade, Faculty of Forestry, Serbia
2. The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA)
Interests: landscape architecture; landscape characterization; green infrastructure; ecosystem services
Mrs. Emilia Weckman
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Aalto University, Department of Architecture, Finland
2. The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA)
Interests: sustainability in landscape construction processes (action research)
Mrs. Marina Cervera Alonso de Medina
E-Mail Website
Guest Editor
1. Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Barcelona Tech. Department of Urbanism and Regional Planning, Spain
2. The International Federation of Landscape Architects (IFLA)
Interests: integration of place-making and management of the commons in urban landscapes

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

The fundamental goal of scholarship in the field of landscape architecture is to enhance the practice of designing, planning, conserving and managing the land. Due to the inherently multifunctional nature of landscapes, both biophysical and cultural, many scholars and practitioners have addressed the importance of multi-, trans- and interdisciplinary approaches to landscape architecture education, research and practice. Such approaches have resulted in new skills, competences, methods, and processes to be articulated, and have led to professional organisations being more involved in accrediting and regulating educational programmes, advancing continuous professional development and training and introducing ethical and moral codes for professional practice. 

Despite major efforts in teaching and research activities that nurture the future of design professions, considerable challenges still confront efforts to reconcile the academic and professional facets. Demands of professional organisations in terms of landscape architectural standards, curriculum development and recognition procedures as well as the changing focus of design pedagogy faced by higher education providers are putting at risk the long-term outcomes of landscape architecture and planning and its fundamental role in promoting social and environmental justice.

This Special Issue invites papers that discuss and present perspectives from both academia and professional practice in landscape architecture which address the synergies between academic programmes and professional organisations. We aim for this Special Issue to critically look at existing system barriers and opportunities afforded by educational standards and assessment of landscape architecture programmes and to explore strategies required to promote a better collaboration between education institutions and professional bodies in terms of landscape design, planning, conservation and management.

Senior Lecturer Bruno Marques
Mr. Lecturer Andreja Tutundžić
Mrs. Emilia Weckman
Mrs. Lecturer Marina Cervera Alonso de Medina
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Land is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • landscape architecture
  • landscape planning
  • conservation and management
  • education
  • design pedagogy
  • curriculum development
  • continuing education and training
  • accreditation standards
  • professional organisations
  • professional and ethical standards

Published Papers (12 papers)

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Article
Learning Spatial Design through Interdisciplinary Collaboration
Land 2021, 10(7), 689; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10070689 - 30 Jun 2021
Viewed by 305
Abstract
Spatial design at interior, site, city and regional scales is increasingly complex, and will continue to be so with the uncertainty of the climate crisis and the growing place-based intricacies of pluralist societies. In response to this complexity, professional design practice has pursued [...] Read more.
Spatial design at interior, site, city and regional scales is increasingly complex, and will continue to be so with the uncertainty of the climate crisis and the growing place-based intricacies of pluralist societies. In response to this complexity, professional design practice has pursued new ways of working. More design projects are becoming more interdisciplinary and less hierarchically structured, involving more collaborative project teams with a variety of backgrounds in architecture, urban design, landscape and interior architecture, engineering, ecological sciences and art. At universities, the design-learning studio which pedagogically champions the authentic replication of design practice projects, has also bifurcated. While teaching design through the traditional disciplinary-based problem-solving processes of an individual project is still understandably commonplace, a new type of studio has emerged, led by group work and interdisciplinary collaborations, and framed by the complexity of a seemingly irreconcilable problematic subject. This emergent domain warrants more research into pedagogical structures, teaching techniques and learning activities; and this paper explains such investigations undertaken through the live educational practice of two interdisciplinary studios in two years, drawing conclusions from student feedback gathered via questionnaires and focus group interviews. The findings suggest that teaching formats in this type of studio need to facilitate a balance between trusting relationships and immersive experiences; and that effective teaching techniques entail the development of more accessible communication techniques in conceptual diagramming and linguistic idiom. Full article
Article
Productive Friction Between Practice and the Academy: Why Can’t We Be Friends?
Land 2021, 10(5), 468; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10050468 - 30 Apr 2021
Viewed by 315
Abstract
This essay examines the various machinations and relationships between landscape architectural practice and landscape architectural academia. Through the lens of productive friction and the philosophical framework of radical hope; I unpack various examples of disruptors and innovation with the aim of opening up [...] Read more.
This essay examines the various machinations and relationships between landscape architectural practice and landscape architectural academia. Through the lens of productive friction and the philosophical framework of radical hope; I unpack various examples of disruptors and innovation with the aim of opening up a discussion around our urgent need for transformation. Full article
Article
Exploring the Potential of 3D Printing Technology in Landscape Design Process
Land 2021, 10(3), 259; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030259 - 04 Mar 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 467
Abstract
Advances in 3D printing technology are giving rise to attempts to utilize the technology in various fields, including landscape design. However, exploring the potential of 3D printing technology has been largely neglected in the context of landscape design and education. Therefore, this study [...] Read more.
Advances in 3D printing technology are giving rise to attempts to utilize the technology in various fields, including landscape design. However, exploring the potential of 3D printing technology has been largely neglected in the context of landscape design and education. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the implication of 3D printing technology for both education and practice in landscape design. We analyzed the literature and examined the current state of 3D printing technology. We also conducted case studies with secondary school students and landscape practitioners to assess the implementation of the technology. Secondary school students demonstrated positive responses, such as increased interest and participation and improvement of understanding, through workshops using 3D-printed models. The semi-structured interviews with landscape practitioners on the implication of the technology confirmed the limitations of 3D printing in terms of cost, delivery time, scale, and level of detail. Full article
Article
Learning to Design with Stakeholders: Participatory, Collaborative, and Transdisciplinary Design in Postgraduate Landscape Architecture Education in Europe
Land 2021, 10(3), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030243 - 01 Mar 2021
Viewed by 464
Abstract
Over the last few decades, interaction and collaboration with stakeholders and communities in the design and development of our environment have become integral parts of landscape architecture practice. This article explores the position of this kind of designing in postgraduate landscape architecture education [...] Read more.
Over the last few decades, interaction and collaboration with stakeholders and communities in the design and development of our environment have become integral parts of landscape architecture practice. This article explores the position of this kind of designing in postgraduate landscape architecture education in Europe. An analysis of the international master’s curricula in landscape architecture of 29 universities across Europe shows there is some attention paid to participatory, collaborative, and transdisciplinary design in several, but not all programs. However, participatory, collaborative, and transdisciplinary design is an important topic in the current discourse amongst landscape architecture scholars. This may indicate an increase in attention to the topic in European landscape architecture education curricula in the (near) future. Full article
Article
Teaching Fieldwork in Landscape Architecture in European Context; Some Backgrounds and Organisation
Land 2021, 10(3), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10030237 - 01 Mar 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 565
Abstract
Fieldwork is an intrinsic part of landscape architecture education because it confronts the students with the landscape in real life, shows realised projects, enables different experiences, and provides a direct confrontation with the historical context of the discipline. Here the main goal is [...] Read more.
Fieldwork is an intrinsic part of landscape architecture education because it confronts the students with the landscape in real life, shows realised projects, enables different experiences, and provides a direct confrontation with the historical context of the discipline. Here the main goal is to give a first overview of teaching of fieldwork, compare that with other publications, and analyse pedagogical and didactic backgrounds in landscape architectural education in Europe. This study is based mainly on existing publications and complemented with our own experiences with fieldwork in teaching. The research method is based on accumulating existing knowledge on the subject and the principles of case study research. After a short overview of pedagogy and didactics in the context of teaching in design disciplines and how this relates to teaching landscape architecture, we work out the organisation of teaching in the outdoors. The conclusions focus on what can be learned in the outdoors that you cannot be learned indoors. Learning to see, to experience the landscape in real is part of “learning by doing” in which drawing, sketching, measuring plays a key role. In the long run pedagogy and didactics of fieldwork should be developed as domain-specific field of knowledge as part of design education in general. Full article
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Article
Landscape Sensitizing through Expansive Learning in Architectural Education
Land 2021, 10(2), 151; https://doi.org/10.3390/land10020151 - 03 Feb 2021
Viewed by 798
Abstract
Expansive learning is a teaching–learning method adopted by the Department of Architecture of Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Mexico, to introduce architectural students to the field of landscape sensitizing. This approach has been especially valuable considering the particular cultural and natural values of [...] Read more.
Expansive learning is a teaching–learning method adopted by the Department of Architecture of Universidad de las Américas Puebla, Mexico, to introduce architectural students to the field of landscape sensitizing. This approach has been especially valuable considering the particular cultural and natural values of the Mexican landscapes. In it, architectural students are introduced to co-configuration strategies along with co-working methods with the participation of specialists and local stakeholders and community on the “barefoot” bottom-up basis. The community of Tochimilco, Puebla, was selected as a case study through which students can learn how vulnerable rural landscapes and their natural environments can be protected, constructed, and developed. Therefore, studying natural landscape and environmental conditions of Tochimilco through data collection, fieldwork and student workshops was carried out to reinforce the understanding of landscape features, values, semiotics, and meanings in a Socio-Ecological System of landscape (SES) framework. In this context, the expansive learning processes revealed the potentiality of architectural students to become environmental facilitators for future design and planning projects to trigger sensitizing and comprehensive approaches. In these terms, architectural education prepares students to recognize and be aware of natural values, landscape narratives and the “barefoot” relationship between the landscape and the human being occupying and cultivating it. Full article
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Article
Future Directions—Engaged Scholarship and the Climate Crisis
Land 2020, 9(9), 304; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9090304 - 29 Aug 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 650
Abstract
Climate change has the potential to disrupt ecosystem services and further exacerbate the effects of human activities on natural resources. This has significant implications for educational institutions and the populations they serve. As the current crop of landscape architecture students struggles to define [...] Read more.
Climate change has the potential to disrupt ecosystem services and further exacerbate the effects of human activities on natural resources. This has significant implications for educational institutions and the populations they serve. As the current crop of landscape architecture students struggles to define its role within the climate crisis and its related social and political underpinnings, a core mission of colleges and universities moving forward should be to provide students with applied knowledge about how climate change affects the landscape. This goes beyond coursework in climate science or policy; for landscape architecture students to be leaders in the response to climate change, they need applied, practical skills. An ever-growing body of the literature focuses on landscape design strategies for climate change adaptation; however, few frameworks integrate these strategies with the hands-on experience students will need to face real-world challenges after graduation. Educational institutions have the potential to utilize their campuses as demonstration sites for applied ecosystem research programs and actively engage students with the design, implementation, politics, and ongoing stewardship of these landscapes. This paper uses a case study methodology to understand how experiential and public-engaged learning pedagogies contribute to student preparedness to address climate change. It examines three cases of engaged learning at the University of California, Davis campus and attributes their impact to intentional connections with research, to the delegation of responsibility; to the openness of spaces for experimentation, and to self-reflection that connects climate with everyday behavior. By promoting experiential learning programs that require students to actively use their heads and their hands to construct and sustainably manage their own campus landscapes, service-learning studios and internships can provide opportunities for students to address the real scenarios of climate crisis and resilience. Full article
Article
From Tactical Urbanism Action to Institutionalised Urban Planning and Educational Tool: The Evolution of Park(ing) Day
Land 2020, 9(7), 217; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070217 - 03 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2105
Abstract
A singular and modest activist action, a temporary park created in San Francisco, grew into the global urban Park(ing) Day (PD) phenomenon. This tactical urbanism event not only expanded to be annually celebrated in thousands of parking lots all over the world but [...] Read more.
A singular and modest activist action, a temporary park created in San Francisco, grew into the global urban Park(ing) Day (PD) phenomenon. This tactical urbanism event not only expanded to be annually celebrated in thousands of parking lots all over the world but became an inspiration for urban planning and policy changes. The permanent rendition of Park(ing) Day, parklets, resulted from the movement but did not stop the spread of PD itself. This article presents case studies from New Zealand and Poland, two geographically and culturally distant locations where PD has further developed and evolved gaining local qualities. Through research methods such as research in design, secondary data analysis and expert interviews we study the trajectory of PD evolution and the role and interpretation of it in different parts of the globe. The results show a narrative of successive popularisation and institutionalisation as well as diversification. Departing from its grassroots, guerilla and assertive traits, PD has grown to become an artistic, creative and urban planning tool. As an established, recognised action and an ‘attractive’ idea, PD has great potential for designer education, allowing a venue for implementing methods such as design-build and live project. Full article
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Article
The Impact of the Process of Academic Education on Differences in Landscape Perception between the Students of Environmental Engineering and Civil Engineering
Land 2020, 9(6), 188; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9060188 - 08 Jun 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 821
Abstract
As technical and technological progress takes place, there is dissonance between teaching good engineering and technological techniques and respect for the landscape. Engineering students are educated to act as initiators and performers of activities that change space. The purpose of this study is [...] Read more.
As technical and technological progress takes place, there is dissonance between teaching good engineering and technological techniques and respect for the landscape. Engineering students are educated to act as initiators and performers of activities that change space. The purpose of this study is to answer question regarding how the engineering students recognize problems related to shaping the landscape. In the years 2012–2015, surveys were conducted in a group of 274 students of the University in their final year of environmental engineering and civil engineering studies, in order to find the main characteristics related to the problem. Students tended to assess the landscape in a manner determined by their education in natural science—emphasizing the division between the well-shaped natural landscape and the malformed anthropogenic one. There were differences between the groups of students—civil engineering students noticed the qualities of architectural objects and shaped greenery in their perception of the landscape in urban areas more often than the environmental engineering students did. There were no differences in the perception of the landscape in rural areas. The harmonious landscape was described as rural, modern, undeveloped and common. The landscape regarded as degraded was built-up and common. There were no changes in the perception of the landscape resulting from the educational profile among the environmental engineering students. The time has come to change methods of teaching the students of engineering and technical sciences about the landscape. This should result in an improvement in their perception of landscape phenomena. Full article
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Article
Spatial Orientation Skill for Landscape Architecture Education and Professional Practice
Land 2020, 9(5), 161; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9050161 - 20 May 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 960
Abstract
Professional landscape architecture organizations have requested training from educational institutions based on new skills and methodologies in the curriculum development of students. Landscape architects need to visualize and evaluate the spatial relationships between the different components of the landscape using two-dimensional (2D) or [...] Read more.
Professional landscape architecture organizations have requested training from educational institutions based on new skills and methodologies in the curriculum development of students. Landscape architects need to visualize and evaluate the spatial relationships between the different components of the landscape using two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) maps and geospatial information, for which spatial orientation skills are necessary. The data from six workshops conducted throughout the 2010–2020 period, in which 560 second-year engineering students participated using different strategies and technical tools for spatial orientation skills’ development, were collected in a unique study. Factors such as the technology used, the gaming environment, the type of task, the 2D/3D environment, and the virtual environment were considered. The Perspective-Taking Spatial Orientation Test was the measurement tool used. The results show that mapping tasks are more efficient than route-based tasks. Strategies using 2D and a 2D/3D combination are more effective than those with only 3D. First-person perspective gaming environments are also a valid alternative. The technologies applied in this study are easy to use and free, and a measurement tool is provided. This facilitates an interdisciplinary approach between landscape architecture education and professional practice since these workshops could also be easily carried out by professional bodies for landscape planning and management. Full article
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Perspective
On Landscape Architecture Education and Professional Practice and Their Future Challenges
Land 2020, 9(7), 228; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9070228 - 13 Jul 2020
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Increased environmental and social risk, ubiquitous information technology, and growing demands for and growing threats to democracy and public participation will alter the education and practice of all the design professions and the geographically oriented sciences, and the ways in which their activities [...] Read more.
Increased environmental and social risk, ubiquitous information technology, and growing demands for and growing threats to democracy and public participation will alter the education and practice of all the design professions and the geographically oriented sciences, and the ways in which their activities towards influencing environmental and social change are organized and carried out. We all know about these trends, but we do not take them seriously enough. We are not adapting fast enough towards education or professional practice that is collaborative and globally oriented. Full article
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Technical Note
Assessing U.S. Landscape Architecture Faculty Research Contribution
Land 2020, 9(3), 64; https://doi.org/10.3390/land9030064 - 25 Feb 2020
Viewed by 1624
Abstract
Landscape architecture programs in the United States are assessed based on the quality of the professional education received by their students. Research is becoming an increasingly important part of the profession as evidence-based landscape architecture grows, and it is critical that university faculty [...] Read more.
Landscape architecture programs in the United States are assessed based on the quality of the professional education received by their students. Research is becoming an increasingly important part of the profession as evidence-based landscape architecture grows, and it is critical that university faculty provide information that can be used in professional practice to resolve important environmental and social issues. In many universities, individual landscape architecture faculty are encouraged to conduct research and their performance is evaluated based largely on the quantity and quality of their scholarly output. This paper used publicly-available information to conduct a citation analysis for individual faculty and professionally accredited landscape architecture programs across the US. There was a wide range in the contribution level with some programs and some individuals who were very productive, while many others contributed very little. This might point to an attempt by programs to maintain a balance between scholarly contributions and the education of professional landscape architects. As research becomes an increasing important part of the profession, the productive programs and individuals identified in this study might provide models for others to emulate. Full article
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