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Open AccessArticle

Mapping and Analyzing the Park Cooling Effect on Urban Heat Island in an Expanding City: A Case Study in Zhengzhou City, China

1
Department of Landscape Planning and Regional Development, Faculty of Landscape Architecture and Urbanism, Szent István University, 1108 Budapest, Hungary
2
Department of Landscape Architecture, College of Forestry, Henan Agricultural University, Zhengzhou 450002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect has been extensively studied as a global issue. The urbanization process has been proved to be the main reason for this phenomenon. Over the past 20 years, the built-up area of Zhengzhou city has grown five times larger, and the UHI effect has become increasingly pressing for the city’s inhabitants. Therefore, mitigating the UHI effect is an important research focus of the expanding capital city of the Henan province. In this study, the Landsat 8 image of July 2019 was selected from Landsat collection to obtain Land Surface Temperature (LST) by using Radiative Transfer Equation (RTE) method, and present land cover information by using spectral indices. Additionally, high-resolution Google Earth images were used to select 123 parks, grouped in five categories, to explore the impact factors on park cooling effect. Park Cooling Intensity (PCI) has been chosen as an indicator of the park cooling effect which will quantify its relation to park patch metrics. The results show that: (1) Among the five studied park types, the theme park category has the largest cooling effect while the linear park category has the lowest cooling effect; (2) The mean park LST and PCI of the samples are positively correlated with the Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) and with Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI), but these are negatively correlated with the Normalized Difference Impervious Surface Index (NDISI). We can suppose that the increase of vegetation cover rate within water areas as well as the decrease of impervious surface in landscape planning and design will make future parks colder. (3) There is a correlation between the PCI and the park characteristics. The UHI effect could be mitigated by increasing of park size and reducing park fractal dimension (Frac_Dim) and perimeter-area ratio (Patario). (4) The PCI is influenced by the park itself and its surrounding area. These results will provide an important reference for future urban planning and urban park design to mitigate the urban heat island effect. View Full-Text
Keywords: park cooling effect; park characteristic; urban heat island; land surface temperature; Zhengzhou; expanding city park cooling effect; park characteristic; urban heat island; land surface temperature; Zhengzhou; expanding city
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, H.; Wang, G.; Tian, G.; Jombach, S. Mapping and Analyzing the Park Cooling Effect on Urban Heat Island in an Expanding City: A Case Study in Zhengzhou City, China. Land 2020, 9, 57.

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