Climate change (CC) is one of the primary threats to the agricultural sector in developing countries. Several empirical studies have shown that the implementation of adaptation practices can reduce the adverse effects of CC. The likelihood of farmers performing adaptation practices is mostly influenced by the degree of CC impact that they perceive. Thus, we identified the characteristics of farmers that affect the degree of the CC impact that they perceive. We used data from the Indonesian Rice Farm Household survey consisting of 87,330 farmers. An ordered probit regression model was used to estimate the effect of each variable on the degree of the perceived impact of CC. The results of this study confirm those of previous empirical studies. Several variables that have been identified as having a positive effect on farmer adaptation practices, such as farmer education, land tenure, irrigation infrastructure, cropping system, chemical fertilizer application, access to extension services, and participation in farmer groups, negatively affect the degree of the perceived impact of CC. However, a different result was found in the estimation of the gender variable. We found that female farmers have a higher CC resilience and ability to withstand climatic shocks and risks than male farmers. Female farmers have a more positive perception of future farming conditions than male farmers. We recommend the implementation of a national adaptation policy that use and expand the channel of agricultural extension services to deliver the planned adaptation policy, and prioritizes farmers with insecure land tenure. Additionally, we encourage the increasing of female involvement in the CC adaptation practices and decision-making processes.
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