The Intention of Community Participation in the Qilian Mountain National Park Policy Pilot
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. The Construction of the Theoretical Model
2.2. Theoretical Hypothesis
- H1: the relevant impact system of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area has a positive and significant influence on the behavioral intentions to participate of its community residents.
- H1-1: the relevant impact system of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area has a positive and significant influence on the behavioral attitudes toward participation of its community residents.
- H1-2: the relevant impact system of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area has a positive and significant influence on the subjective norms of its community residents.
- H1-3: the relevant impact system of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area has a positive and significant influence on the perceived behaviors of its community residents.
- H2: the behavioral attitude of the participation of community residents in the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area has a positive and significant influence on the community’s intention of participation.
- H3: the subjective norms of community residents in the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area have a positive and significant influence on the behavioral intentions of the community’s participation.
- H4: the perceptual behavior control of community residents in the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area has a positive and significant influence on the behavioral intentions of the community’s participation.
2.3. Research Methods
3. Data Collection and Analysis
3.1. Description of the Research Area
3.2. Demographic Sample Analysis
3.3. Descriptive Analysis
4.1. Reliability Analysis
4.2. Structural Equation Model Analysis
4.2.1. Parameter Fitting Analysis
4.2.2. Hypothetical Test
6. Conclusions and Implications
- The National Park System Pilot Area positively increased the community residents’ willingness to participate. Therefore, regarding future development, it is necessary to strengthen government guidance and popularize scientific research and instructions related to the theme of the Qilian Mountain National Park. In addition, it is critical to ensure that during the exploration period, the pilot policy can reach a critical consensus with the community in the construction of national parks and promote residents’ participation intentions in relevant communities through positive relationships.
- The National Park System Pilot Area, behavioral attitude, subjective norms, and perceptual behavior control all positively affected community residents’ willingness to participate. Therefore, the government may need to consider setting up standardized and professional departments to reward and commend community participants who actively participate in constructing national parks and who demonstrate certain achievements. This method would enhance residents’ sense of honor and improve the quality of community life. By “reshaping” the cultural landscape of Qilian Mountain National Park, the community will become the major component of the cultural landscape. The Qilian Mountain National Park cultural value system will be formed based on the principle of attitude priority. In addition, it is necessary to classify the study areas during the next phase of managing the national park communities and subdivide the relevant suggestions from different communities’ feedback regarding the residents’ perceptions of participation.
- The impact of the construction of the National Park Pilot Area on community residents discussed in this study has a strong correlation with Wallner’s three major perceptions of protected areas that affect residents (the economic situation, the history of natural protection, and the power balance between the involved stakeholders) . The authors of this study believe that economic factors and the balance of interests of all parties are essential indicators for coordinating community participation. In addition, we also note that the majority of respondents were not highly educated and had limited abilities to obtain relevant information regarding the development of the national park community. Insufficient publicity of the national park concept and passive acceptance of the policy are the reasons why many respondents have a neutral or negative attitude [34,35]. Therefore, increasing the level of community participation in national parks requires not only active publicity, but also requires relevant organizations to establish effective communication mechanisms and social networks so that residents can actively interact with the National Park Management Committee on issues encountered in the construction of national parks, thereby increasing participation in constructing the national park community.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
The model is extended based on the TPB theoretical model. The extension item is the relevant influence system of the Qilian Mountain National Park Pilot Area. This extension item has a particular impact on cognitive atti-tude and behavioral intention.
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(Sample = 230)
|Average Salary per Month||Less than 1000 (RMB)||7||3|
|Over 9001 (RMB)||6||2.7|
|Attribute of Residents||Native Settlers||148||64.3|
|Migrants (Non-Native Settlers)||82||35.7|
|Source of Income||Tourism||70||30.4|
|Animal Husbandry and Plantation||95||41.3|
|Distance from the Core Region||Less than 5 km||37||16.1|
|Related Impact System Scale of Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area||Stage of Cognition||RIS1: I have a basic understanding of the related information of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area and the communities’ functions regarding the construction of the pilot area.|
RIS2: I understand the policy mechanism implemented in the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.
RIS3: The government actively promoted relevant knowledge to community residents in constructing the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.
RIS4: The government provided policy guidance and technical support in constructing the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.
|Zhang et al. (2017) |
Zhou et al. (2017) 
|Behavioral Attitude Scale of Qilian Mountain National Park Residents’ Participation||Attitude Cognition||BA1: The construction of the Qilian Mountain National Park is inseparable from the participation of the community, which is the core element of the development of the national park.|
BA2: The Qilian Mountain National Park implements a community co-management mechanism, which is also the future trend regarding the development of national park communities.
BA3: The Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area can generate revenue based on eco-tourism and I can profit from it.
BA4: The Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area can increase awareness of my community and increase individuals’ sense of pride.
|Han et al. (2010) |
Zhang et al. (2017) 
|Subjective Norms Scale of Qilian Mountain National Park Residents||Attitude Cognition||SN1: The Qilian Mountain National Park Administration believes that community residents’ awareness of participation in the construction of national parks should be raised at this stage.|
SN2: Schools and relevant education departments believe that community residents’ awareness of participation in the construction of national parks should be raised at this stage.
SN3: My friends and family members believe that community residents’ awareness of participation in the construction of national parks should be raised at this stage
|Zhou et al. (2014) |
|Perceptual Behavior Control Scale of Qilian Mountain National Park Residents||PBC1: I have a basic understanding of the process of the community participation and related policies for the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.|
PBC2: I can take on relevant responsibilities as a community resident after implementation of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.
PBC3: I have an optimistic attitude towards the intentions of community residents’ participation after implementation of the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.
PBC4: I have a supportive attitude towards community residents’ active participation in constructing the Qilian Mountain National Park System Pilot Area.
|Wang et al. (2020) |
|Behavioral Intention Scale of Qilian Mountain National Park Residents’ Participation||Behavioral|
|BI1: As a community resident, I am willing to actively participate in constructing the Qilian Mountain National Park.|
BI2: I will actively cooperate with the National Park Administration to fulfill various requirements for community construction.
BI3: I will encourage people around me to participate in the project actively and ask them to learn relevant information.
BI4: I will actively participate in the volunteer activities needed in the construction of the national park.
|Zheng et al. (2014) |
|Abbreviations of Measurement Hypothesis||Mean||Standard|
|Statistics||Statistics||Statistics||Statistics||Standard Error||Statistics||Standard Error|
|Item||Cronbach’s Alpha||Standardized Cronbach’s Alpha||Number of Items|
|Related Impact System Scale||0.871||0.871||4|
|Behavioral Attitude Scale||0.886||0.886||4|
|Perceptual Behavior Control Scale||0.855||0.856||3|
|Subjective Norms Scale||0.817||0.819||4|
|Behavioral Intention Scale||0.879||0.883||4|
|Scale Type||KMO Sampling Suitability Quantity||Bartlett Sphericity Test|
|Approximate Chi Square||Degree of Freedom||Significance|
|Related Impact System Scale||0.831||442.137||6||0.0000|
|Behavioral Attitude Scale||0.824||509.384||6||0.0000|
|Conceptual Behavior Scale||0.822||597.195||6||0.0000|
|Subjective Norms Scale||0.85||638.718||6||0.0000|
|Behavioral Intention Scale||0.825||916.342||6||0.0000|
|Composition||Initial Eigenvalue||Sum of Squares of Rotating Load|
|Total||Percentage of Variance||Cumulation (%)||Total||Percentage of Variance||Cumulation (%)|
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Jia, L.; Wei, J.; Wang, Z. The Intention of Community Participation in the Qilian Mountain National Park Policy Pilot. Land 2022, 11, 170. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020170
Jia L, Wei J, Wang Z. The Intention of Community Participation in the Qilian Mountain National Park Policy Pilot. Land. 2022; 11(2):170. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020170Chicago/Turabian Style
Jia, Liqi, Junqing Wei, and Zibin Wang. 2022. "The Intention of Community Participation in the Qilian Mountain National Park Policy Pilot" Land 11, no. 2: 170. https://doi.org/10.3390/land11020170