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Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle

Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904, USA
2
The Earth Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 10025, USA
3
The Nature Conservancy, New York, NY 10001, USA
4
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, Milan I-20133, Italy
5
Department of Environmental Science, Policy, and Management, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2017, 9(2), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/w9020083
Received: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 30 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Footprint Assessment)
Demographic growth, changes in diet, and reliance on first-generation biofuels are increasing the human demand for agricultural products, thereby enhancing the human pressure on global freshwater resources. Recent research on the food-water nexus has highlighted how some major agricultural regions of the world lack the water resources required to sustain current growth trends in crop production. To meet the increasing need for agricultural commodities with limited water resources, the water use efficiency of the agricultural sector must be improved. In this regard, recent work indicates that the often overlooked strategy of changing the crop distribution within presently cultivated areas offers promise. Here we investigate the extent to which water in the United States could be saved while improving yields simply by replacing the existing crops with more suitable ones. We propose crop replacement criteria that achieve this goal while preserving crop diversity, economic value, nitrogen fixation, and food protein production. We find that in the United States, these criteria would greatly improve calorie (+46%) and protein (+34%) production and economic value (+208%), with 5% water savings with respect to the present crop distribution. Interestingly, greater water savings could be achieved in water-stressed agricultural regions of the US such as California (56% water savings), and other western states. View Full-Text
Keywords: water footprint; water resources; agriculture; irrigation; nutrition; sustainability water footprint; water resources; agriculture; irrigation; nutrition; sustainability
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Davis, K.F.; Seveso, A.; Rulli, M.C.; D’Odorico, P. Water Savings of Crop Redistribution in the United States. Water 2017, 9, 83.

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