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Open AccessArticle

Quantifying the Response Time of a Lake–Groundwater Interacting System to Climatic Perturbation

1
Key Laboratory of Beijing for Water Quality Science and Water Environment Recovery Engineering, College of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
2
School of Earth Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Keith Smettem
Water 2015, 7(11), 6598-6615; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7116598
Received: 6 September 2015 / Revised: 5 November 2015 / Accepted: 12 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Developments in Methods for Hydrological Process Understanding)
Response time, describing how quickly a disturbed system would reach a new equilibrium, has been helpful to hydrogeologists in characterizing and understanding the hydrogeological systems. This study examined the complex response times associated with lake–groundwater perturbed by climate. Simulated hydraulic heads and lake stage values derived from a 3-D, MODFLOW-based model were used to calculate the response times for a closed, groundwater-fed lake system. Although obviously coupled, the response times of the lake and groundwater systems were different from one another. Typically, the adjustments in hydraulic heads occurred more rapidly than lake stage. Response times for groundwaters close to the lake were controlled by the lake because of the slow transient response in stage. However, the influence of the lake declined toward the basin boundaries. This behavior occurred because critical parameters controlling the response-time behavior of the groundwater system (e.g., recharge rate) differed from those controlling the response-time behavior of the lake (e.g., bed leakance). An improved understanding of lake–groundwater behaviors have the potential to evaluate how lakes function as systems for recording paleoclimates. View Full-Text
Keywords: time lag; response time; lake; paleoclimate; MODFLOW; hydraulic conductivity time lag; response time; lake; paleoclimate; MODFLOW; hydraulic conductivity
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Gong, Y.; Liu, G.; Schwartz, F.W. Quantifying the Response Time of a Lake–Groundwater Interacting System to Climatic Perturbation. Water 2015, 7, 6598-6615.

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