Next Article in Journal
Quantifying the Response Time of a Lake–Groundwater Interacting System to Climatic Perturbation
Previous Article in Journal
Empirical Estimation of Total Nitrogen and Total Phosphorus Concentration of Urban Water Bodies in China Using High Resolution IKONOS Multispectral Imagery
Review

State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process

by 1,*,† and 2,†
1
Norwegian University of Life Sciences, PO Box 5003-IMT, Aas 1432, Norway
2
University of Applied Sciences Ostwestfalen-Lippe, An der Wilhelmshöhe 44, Höxter 37671, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Miklas Scholz
Water 2015, 7(11), 6574-6597; https://doi.org/10.3390/w7116574
Received: 27 September 2015 / Revised: 4 November 2015 / Accepted: 9 November 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
Coagulation is an essential process for the removal of suspended and colloidal material from water and wastewater. However, no comprehensive or universally accepted mathematical description of the process has been developed so far. Therefore, process optimization and control is usually based on data from jar tests and simple flow-proportional dosing concepts, while more accurate concepts based on water quality parameters that can be measured online are emerging. In addition, there have been attempts to develop software sensors and control schemes that involve advanced mathematical analyses of these parameters. The paper presents an overview of the parameters and physical sensors that are used for feed-forward and feed-backward control schemes and the experiences that have been made with their implementation. Moreover, the development and use of software sensors is described. Finally, the practical applications of different control techniques are given in order to illustrate the state of the art of coagulation control. Some thoughts about research needs conclude this review. View Full-Text
Keywords: coagulation; water; wastewater; purification; modeling; feed-forward control; feedback control coagulation; water; wastewater; purification; modeling; feed-forward control; feedback control
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Ratnaweera, H.; Fettig, J. State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process. Water 2015, 7, 6574-6597. https://doi.org/10.3390/w7116574

AMA Style

Ratnaweera H, Fettig J. State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process. Water. 2015; 7(11):6574-6597. https://doi.org/10.3390/w7116574

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ratnaweera, Harsha, and Joachim Fettig. 2015. "State of the Art of Online Monitoring and Control of the Coagulation Process" Water 7, no. 11: 6574-6597. https://doi.org/10.3390/w7116574

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop