Coagulation is an essential process for the removal of suspended and colloidal material from water and wastewater. However, no comprehensive or universally accepted mathematical description of the process has been developed so far. Therefore, process optimization and control is usually based on data from jar tests and simple flow-proportional dosing concepts, while more accurate concepts based on water quality parameters that can be measured online are emerging. In addition, there have been attempts to develop software sensors and control schemes that involve advanced mathematical analyses of these parameters. The paper presents an overview of the parameters and physical sensors that are used for feed-forward and feed-backward control schemes and the experiences that have been made with their implementation. Moreover, the development and use of software sensors is described. Finally, the practical applications of different control techniques are given in order to illustrate the state of the art of coagulation control. Some thoughts about research needs conclude this review.
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