Next Article in Journal
Water Banks: Using Managed Aquifer Recharge to Meet Water Policy Objectives
Next Article in Special Issue
Assessing Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources and Colorado Agriculture Using an Equilibrium Displacement Mathematical Programming Model
Previous Article in Journal
Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessing the Impacts of Sea Level Rise on Salinity Intrusion and Transport Time Scales in a Tidal Estuary, Taiwan
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2014, 6(6), 1482-1499;

Climatic Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Hai River Basin and Their Attribution

Guangzhou Institute of Geography, No.100 Xianliezhong Road, Guangzhou 510070, China
Key Laboratory of Water Cycle & Related Land Surface Processes, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101, China
State Key Laboratory of Water Resources & Hydropower Engineering Science, Wuhan University Wuhan 430072, China
Institute of Physical Geography and Environmental Planning, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan 61-680, Poland
General Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Planning and Design, Ministry of Water Resources of China, Beijing 100120, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 26 February 2014 / Revised: 16 May 2014 / Accepted: 20 May 2014 / Published: 28 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Resources in a Variable and Changing Climate)
Full-Text   |   PDF [2901 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


Based on the meteorological data from 46 stations in the Hai River Basin (HRB) from 1961–2010, the annual and seasonal variation of reference evapotranspiration was analyzed. The sensitivity coefficients combined with the detrend method were used to discuss the dominant factor affecting the reference evapotranspiration (ETo). The obtained results indicate that the annual reference evapotranspiration is dominated by the decreasing trends at the confidence level of 95% in the southern and eastern parts of the HRB. The sensitivity order of climatic variables to ETo from strong to weak is: relativity humidity, temperature, shortwave radiation and wind speed, respectively. However, comprehensively considering the sensitivity and its variation strength, the detrend analysis indicates that the decreasing trends of ETo in eastern and southern HRB may be caused mainly by the decreasing wind speed and shortwave radiation. As for the relationship between human activity and the trend of ETo, we found that ETo decreased more significantly on the plains than in the mountains. By contrast, the population density increased more considerably from 2000 to 2010 on the plains than in the mountains. Therefore, in this paper, the correlation of the spatial variation pattern between ETo and population was further analyzed. The spatial correlation coefficient between population and the trend of ETo is −0.132, while the spatial correlation coefficient between the trend of ETo and elevation, temperature, shortwave radiation and wind speed is 0.667, 0.668, 0.749 and 0.416, respectively. This suggests that human activity has a certain influence on the spatial variation of ETo, while natural factors play a decisive role in the spatial variation of reference evapotranspiration in this area. View Full-Text
Keywords: climatic variation; reference evapotranspiration; Penman–Monteith method; Hai River Basin climatic variation; reference evapotranspiration; Penman–Monteith method; Hai River Basin

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Zhao, L.; Xia, J.; Sobkowiak, L.; Li, Z. Climatic Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Hai River Basin and Their Attribution. Water 2014, 6, 1482-1499.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top