Next Article in Journal
Climatic Characteristics of Reference Evapotranspiration in the Hai River Basin and Their Attribution
Next Article in Special Issue
Public Perception of Water Consumption and Its Effects on Water Conservation Behavior
Previous Article in Journal
Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Conditions in Kenyan Rural Schools: Are Schools Meeting the Needs of Menstruating Girls?
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Water 2014, 6(5), 1467-1481;

Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households

Department of Computer Sciences, Polytechnic School, University of Alcala, Road Madrid-Barcelona, Km 33.6, Alcal√° de Henares 28871, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 February 2014 / Revised: 13 May 2014 / Accepted: 15 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Consumption and Water End-uses in Buildings)
Full-Text   |   PDF [524 KB, uploaded 9 June 2015]   |  


A significant decrease in water consumption has been achieved in recent years thanks to different campaigns run by different institutions in Spain. However, most citizens do not have a very clear idea about whether or not they are efficiently using water. To solve this situation, this paper aims is to develop two water labels in order to improve the current water billing. These water labels evaluate the total water consumption and the domestic hot water consumption. To make the tags, several research studies were tackled for establishing consumer trends and behavior patterns. Furthermore, a survey and data collection were conducted to obtain updated values to validate information obtained from previous studies. The result are two water labels that establish six different levels to graphically show the efficiency, and they also include a comparison with the average consumption by customers of the same province. To ensure that the benefits of this evaluation are available to citizens, its inclusion on the water bill is proposed. View Full-Text
Keywords: consumption evaluation; efficiency; household; water consumption consumption evaluation; efficiency; household; water consumption

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Castillo-Martinez, A.; Gutierrez-Escolar, A.; Gutierrez-Martinez, J.-M.; Gomez-Pulido, J.M.; Garcia-Lopez, E. Water Label to Improve Water Billing in Spanish Households. Water 2014, 6, 1467-1481.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Water EISSN 2073-4441 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top