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Review

Modification of the Water Quality Index (WQI) Process for Simple Calculation Using the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) Method: A Review

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School of Industrial Technology, Division of Environmental Technology, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
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Centre for Global Sustainability Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
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School of Chemical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
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Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Petaling Jaya 50603, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Sophia Barinova
Water 2021, 13(7), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070905
Received: 2 February 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 11 March 2021 / Published: 26 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Assessment of Water Quality)
Human activities continue to affect our water quality; it remains a major problem worldwide (particularly concerning freshwater and human consumption). A critical water quality index (WQI) method has been used to determine the overall water quality status of surface water and groundwater systems globally since the 1960s. WQI follows four steps: parameter selection, sub-indices, establishing weights, and final index aggregation, which are addressed in this review. However, the WQI method is a prolonged process and applied to specific water quality parameters, i.e., water consumption (particular area and time) and other purposes. Therefore, this review discusses the WQI method in simple steps, for water quality assessment, based on two multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods: (1) analytical hierarchical process (AHP); and (2) measuring attractiveness by a categorically based evaluation technique (MACBETH). MCDM methods can facilitate easy calculations, with less effort and great accuracy. Moreover, the uncertainty and eclipsing problems are also discussed—a challenge at every step of WQI development, particularly for parameter selection and establishing weights. This review will help provide water management authorities with useful knowledge pertaining to water usage or modification of existing indicators globally, and contribute to future WQI planning and studies for drinking, irrigation, domestic, and industrial purposes. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality assessment; physicochemical and biological parameters; water quality index; multi-criteria decision-making; analytical hierarchical process; MACBETH water quality assessment; physicochemical and biological parameters; water quality index; multi-criteria decision-making; analytical hierarchical process; MACBETH
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akhtar, N.; Ishak, M.I.S.; Ahmad, M.I.; Umar, K.; Md Yusuff, M.S.; Anees, M.T.; Qadir, A.; Ali Almanasir, Y.K. Modification of the Water Quality Index (WQI) Process for Simple Calculation Using the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) Method: A Review. Water 2021, 13, 905. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070905

AMA Style

Akhtar N, Ishak MIS, Ahmad MI, Umar K, Md Yusuff MS, Anees MT, Qadir A, Ali Almanasir YK. Modification of the Water Quality Index (WQI) Process for Simple Calculation Using the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) Method: A Review. Water. 2021; 13(7):905. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070905

Chicago/Turabian Style

Akhtar, Naseem, Muhammad I.S. Ishak, Mardiana I. Ahmad, Khalid Umar, Mohamad S. Md Yusuff, Mohd T. Anees, Abdul Qadir, and Yazan K. Ali Almanasir 2021. "Modification of the Water Quality Index (WQI) Process for Simple Calculation Using the Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) Method: A Review" Water 13, no. 7: 905. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13070905

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