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Open AccessArticle

Sea Topography of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas Using Repeated GNSS Measurements

1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Peloponnese, 1 M. Alexandrou Str., Koukouli, 26334 Patras, Greece
2
School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Tsamadou 13-15, 26222 Patras, Greece
Academic Editor: Simone Marini
Water 2021, 13(6), 812; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060812
Received: 22 January 2021 / Revised: 8 March 2021 / Accepted: 12 March 2021 / Published: 16 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pattern Analysis, Recognition and Classification of Marine Data)
The mean sea surface topography of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas has been determined. This was based on six-months of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) measurements which were performed on the Ionian Queen (a ship). The measurements were analyzed following a double-path methodology based on differential GNSS (D-GNSS) and precise point positioning (PPP) analysis. Numerical filtering techniques, multi-parametric accuracy analysis and a new technique for removing the meteorological tide factors were also used. Results were compared with the EGM96 geoid model. The calculated differences ranged between 0 and 48 cm. The error of the results was estimated to fall within 3.31 cm. The 3D image of the marine topography in the region shows a nearly constant slope of 4 cm/km in the N–S direction. Thus, the effectiveness of the approach “repeated GNSS measurements on the same route of a ship” developed in the context of “GNSS methods on floating means” has been demonstrated. The application of this approach using systematic multi-track recordings on conventional liner ships is very promising, as it may open possibilities for widespread use of the methodology across the world. View Full-Text
Keywords: kinematic GPS; ellipsoid; geoid; GNSS; Global Navigation Satellite System; coastal mapping kinematic GPS; ellipsoid; geoid; GNSS; Global Navigation Satellite System; coastal mapping
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lycourghiotis, S. Sea Topography of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas Using Repeated GNSS Measurements. Water 2021, 13, 812. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060812

AMA Style

Lycourghiotis S. Sea Topography of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas Using Repeated GNSS Measurements. Water. 2021; 13(6):812. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060812

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lycourghiotis, Sotiris. 2021. "Sea Topography of the Ionian and Adriatic Seas Using Repeated GNSS Measurements" Water 13, no. 6: 812. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060812

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