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SARS-CoV-2 from Urban to Rural Water Environment: Occurrence, Persistence, Fate, and Influence on Agriculture Irrigation. A Review

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Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Viale Giuseppe Fanin 44-50, 40127 Bologna, Italy
2
CIRI FRAME-Interdepartmental Centre for Industrial Research in Renewable Resources, Environment, Sea and Energy, Alma Mater Studiorum-University of Bologna, Via Selmi 2, 40126 Bologna, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Philippe Hartemann
Water 2021, 13(6), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060764
Received: 4 February 2021 / Revised: 4 March 2021 / Accepted: 8 March 2021 / Published: 11 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue SARS-CoV-2 in Waters: Rational)
The novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19), originating from China, has rapidly crossed borders, infecting people worldwide. While its transmission may occur predominantly via aerosolization of virus-laden droplets, the possibility of other routes of contagion via the environment necessitates considerable scientific consideration. SARS-CoV-2 viral RNA has been detected in the feces of infected persons, and studies also have reported its occurrence in wastewater and surface water bodies. Therefore, water may be a possible route of virus outbreaks. Agricultural irrigation is the largest use of water globally, accounting for 70% of water use worldwide. Ensuring adequate water quality within irrigation practices is fundamental to prevent harm to plants and soils, maintain food safety, and protect public health. This review aims to gather information on possible SARS-CoV-2 transmission routes within urban and rural water environments, looking into the detection, persistence, and fate of SARS-CoV-2. Based on published literature, the effect of current treatment technologies in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on SARS-CoV-2 inactivation has also been investigated. Preliminary research efforts that concentrated on SARS-CoV-2 indicate that the risk of virus transmission from the aquatic environment may currently be non-existent, although a few studies have reported the presence of SARS-CoV RNA in soils, whereas there are still no studies on the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in crops. View Full-Text
Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; water reuse; reclaimed water; wastewater; agriculture irrigation coronavirus; COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; water reuse; reclaimed water; wastewater; agriculture irrigation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mancuso, G.; Perulli, G.D.; Lavrnić, S.; Morandi, B.; Toscano, A. SARS-CoV-2 from Urban to Rural Water Environment: Occurrence, Persistence, Fate, and Influence on Agriculture Irrigation. A Review. Water 2021, 13, 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060764

AMA Style

Mancuso G, Perulli GD, Lavrnić S, Morandi B, Toscano A. SARS-CoV-2 from Urban to Rural Water Environment: Occurrence, Persistence, Fate, and Influence on Agriculture Irrigation. A Review. Water. 2021; 13(6):764. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060764

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mancuso, Giuseppe; Perulli, Giulio D.; Lavrnić, Stevo; Morandi, Brunella; Toscano, Attilio. 2021. "SARS-CoV-2 from Urban to Rural Water Environment: Occurrence, Persistence, Fate, and Influence on Agriculture Irrigation. A Review" Water 13, no. 6: 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13060764

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