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Article

1,2-DCA Natural Attenuation Evaluation in Groundwater: Insight by Dual Isotope 13C/37Cl and Molecular Analysis Approach

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Decarbonization and Environmental R&D, Eni S.p.A., 20097 S. Donato Milanese, Italy
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Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Politecnico di Milano, 20133 Milano, Italy
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Eni Rewind S.p.A., 20097 S. Donato Milanese, Italy
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Isotope Tracer Technologies Inc., Waterloo, ON N2V 1Z5, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Domenico Cicchella
Water 2021, 13(5), 728; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050728
Received: 16 December 2020 / Revised: 26 January 2021 / Accepted: 23 February 2021 / Published: 7 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Groundwater and Soil Remediation)
Natural attenuation (NA) processes represent a valuable option in groundwater remediation. At a heavily 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA) contaminated site, Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA) in combination with Biological Molecular Tools (BMTs) were implemented as a rigorous characterization approach to evaluate the occurrence of Natural Attenuation in the proximity of the source area. By the use of microcosm experiments, the potential for natural and enhanced biodegradation under anaerobic conditions was documented, following the dichloroelimination pathway. Enrichment factors of −9.1‰ and −11.3‰ were obtained for 13C while Geobacter spp. and reductive dehalogenase genes (rdhs) were identified as main site-specific biomarkers. At pilot scale, enrichments of 13.5‰ and 6.3‰ for δ13C and δ37Cl, respectively, high levels of reductive dehalogenase (rdh group VI) along with the dominance of Geobacter spp. indicated the occurrence of significant dichloroelimination processes in groundwater under anaerobic conditions. By using the site-specific enrichment factors, degradation extents over approximately 70–80% were estimated, highlighting the relevant potential of NA in 1,2-DCA degradation in the vicinity of the source area at the site. The proposed fine-tuned protocol, including CSIA and BMTs, is proven to be effective as a groundwater remediation strategy, properly assessing and monitoring NA at site scale. View Full-Text
Keywords: 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA); Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA); Biological Molecular Tools (BMTs); natural attenuation; groundwater; enhanced bioremediation; microcosm experiments 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA); Compound-Specific Isotope Analysis (CSIA); Biological Molecular Tools (BMTs); natural attenuation; groundwater; enhanced bioremediation; microcosm experiments
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carpani, G.; Marchesi, M.; Pietrini, I.; Alberti, L.; Zaninetta, L.M.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; de Ferra, F. 1,2-DCA Natural Attenuation Evaluation in Groundwater: Insight by Dual Isotope 13C/37Cl and Molecular Analysis Approach. Water 2021, 13, 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050728

AMA Style

Carpani G, Marchesi M, Pietrini I, Alberti L, Zaninetta LM, Shouakar-Stash O, de Ferra F. 1,2-DCA Natural Attenuation Evaluation in Groundwater: Insight by Dual Isotope 13C/37Cl and Molecular Analysis Approach. Water. 2021; 13(5):728. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050728

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carpani, Giovanna, Massimo Marchesi, Ilaria Pietrini, Luca Alberti, Luciano M. Zaninetta, Orfan Shouakar-Stash, and Francesca de Ferra. 2021. "1,2-DCA Natural Attenuation Evaluation in Groundwater: Insight by Dual Isotope 13C/37Cl and Molecular Analysis Approach" Water 13, no. 5: 728. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13050728

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