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Open AccessArticle

Modeling Bacterial Regrowth and Trihalomethane Formation in Water Distribution Systems

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Technion—Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
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Academic Editor: Francesco De Paola
Water 2021, 13(4), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040463
Received: 18 January 2021 / Revised: 28 January 2021 / Accepted: 6 February 2021 / Published: 10 February 2021
The formation of bacterial regrowth and disinfection by-products is ubiquitous in chlorinated water distribution systems (WDSs) operated with organic loads. A generic, easy-to-use mechanistic model describing the fundamental processes governing the interrelationship between chlorine, total organic carbon (TOC), and bacteria to analyze the spatiotemporal water quality variations in WDSs was developed using EPANET-MSX. The representation of multispecies reactions was simplified to minimize the interdependent model parameters. The physicochemical/biological processes that cannot be experimentally determined were neglected. The effects of source water characteristics and water residence time on controlling bacterial regrowth and Trihalomethane (THM) formation in two well-tested systems under chlorinated and non-chlorinated conditions were analyzed by applying the model. The results established that a 100% increase in the free chlorine concentration and a 50% reduction in the TOC at the source effectuated a 5.87 log scale decrement in the bacteriological activity at the expense of a 60% increase in THM formation. The sensitivity study showed the impact of the operating conditions and the network characteristics in determining parameter sensitivities to model outputs. The maximum specific growth rate constant for bulk phase bacteria was found to be the most sensitive parameter to the predicted bacterial regrowth. View Full-Text
Keywords: EPANET-MSX; chlorine; bacteria; drinking water; water distribution; multispecies; reactive-transport; trihalomethanes; water quality EPANET-MSX; chlorine; bacteria; drinking water; water distribution; multispecies; reactive-transport; trihalomethanes; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abhijith, G.R.; Kadinski, L.; Ostfeld, A. Modeling Bacterial Regrowth and Trihalomethane Formation in Water Distribution Systems. Water 2021, 13, 463. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040463

AMA Style

Abhijith GR, Kadinski L, Ostfeld A. Modeling Bacterial Regrowth and Trihalomethane Formation in Water Distribution Systems. Water. 2021; 13(4):463. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040463

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abhijith, Gopinathan R.; Kadinski, Leonid; Ostfeld, Avi. 2021. "Modeling Bacterial Regrowth and Trihalomethane Formation in Water Distribution Systems" Water 13, no. 4: 463. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13040463

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