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Article

Removal of Cd (II) Ions from Bioretention System by Clay and Soil Wettability

College of Urban Construction, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 211800, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Antonio Panico
Water 2021, 13(22), 3164; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223164
Received: 17 September 2021 / Revised: 3 November 2021 / Accepted: 9 November 2021 / Published: 10 November 2021
In this work, a silane modifier with benzyl substitutes (OFS-B) and linear substitutes (OFS-L) was used to modify bentonite clay and soil, and the results were characterized by Fourier transform-infrared absorption spectroscopy (FT-IR) and powder-X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. A contact angle analysis was performed to determine the wettability of modified clay and soil. The findings revealed that silane-modified OFS-L clay and soil produced wettable surfaces, while OFS-B exhibited hydrophobic properties. These clays and soils were used in a bioretention system for Cd (II) removal. In the study, seven different types of bioretention systems, including natural, OFS-L, and OFS-B modified clay and soil, as well as natural, OFS-L, and OFS-B modified soil, were applied to Cyperus alternifolius plants without an additional layer. The removal capacity of Cd (II) was measured in the following order: modified clay > modified soil > original clay/soil > no layer, i.e., 99.48%, 92.22%, 88.10/78.5%, and 30.0%, respectively. OFS-L removed more Cd (II) than OFS-B during the modification. OFS-L now improves the bioavailability and accumulation of Cd (II) in the plant (18.5 µg/g) and has a higher chlorophyll-b concentration (1.92 mg/g fresh weight) than other systems. The wettable clay exhibited clay leaching into the various levels of the bioretention system. In the bioretention system, benzyl substituted clay prevented the penetration of water and formed a Cd (II) agglomeration. When compared to non-wettable modifiers, these results indicated that wettable clay material could be a capable material for removing Cd (II). View Full-Text
Keywords: bioretention; clay; heavy metal; hydrophobicity; silane; soil chemistry bioretention; clay; heavy metal; hydrophobicity; silane; soil chemistry
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MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, T.; Yu, J.; Cai, D.; You, Z.; Shah, K.J. Removal of Cd (II) Ions from Bioretention System by Clay and Soil Wettability. Water 2021, 13, 3164. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223164

AMA Style

Xu T, Yu J, Cai D, You Z, Shah KJ. Removal of Cd (II) Ions from Bioretention System by Clay and Soil Wettability. Water. 2021; 13(22):3164. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223164

Chicago/Turabian Style

Xu, Tong, Jiacheng Yu, Dongjian Cai, Zhaoyang You, and Kinjal J. Shah. 2021. "Removal of Cd (II) Ions from Bioretention System by Clay and Soil Wettability" Water 13, no. 22: 3164. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13223164

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