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Open AccessArticle

Contamination Status of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in Surface and Groundwater of the Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka

1
Centre for Environmental Studies and Sustainable Development, The Open University of Sri Lanka, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
2
Food and Water laboratory, Medical Research Institute, Borella 00800, Sri Lanka
3
Centre for Water Quality and Algae Research, Department of Zoology, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
4
Faculty of Graduate Studies, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Nugegoda 10250, Sri Lanka
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(8), 2187; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12082187
Received: 19 April 2020 / Revised: 25 May 2020 / Accepted: 28 May 2020 / Published: 4 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Microbial Contamination and Bioremediation)
Waterborne diseases are a global problem that causes more than 2.2 million deaths annually. Therefore, the present study was focused on microbiological contamination of both ground and surface water by means of total coliform, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter spp. Seventy two groundwater and 45 surface water sampling locations were selected to collect water from the head, transitional and meandering regions of the Kelani River Basin for a period of one year (both dry and wet seasons). The results of the study revealed that the entire Kelani River basin was contaminated with total coliform and E. coli bacteria and almost all the sampling locations exceed Sri Lanka Standards Institute (SLSI) guideline value given for drinking water (0 CFU/100 mL). Further, in groundwater, 17 locations were positive for Salmonella spp., whereas only 2 locations were positive for Campylobacter spp. In surface water, 26 and three sampling locations were positive for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp., respectively. In this study, 23 different human pathogenic serovars were isolated and the Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky was identified as the commonest type. Thus, the result of the study revealed that the consumption of raw water from the Kelani River Basin is unsafe and possible to cause gastrointestinal diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: Kelani River Basin; ground and surface water; Salmonella spp.; Shigella spp.; Campylobacter spp. Kelani River Basin; ground and surface water; Salmonella spp.; Shigella spp.; Campylobacter spp.
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Mahagamage, M.; Pathirage, M.; Manage, P.M. Contamination Status of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp. and Campylobacter spp. in Surface and Groundwater of the Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka. Water 2020, 12, 2187.

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