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Article

Evaluation of Effects of Municipal Sludge Leachates on Water Quality

1
School of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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School of Spatial Planning and Development, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 2046; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072046
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 14 July 2020 / Accepted: 16 July 2020 / Published: 18 July 2020
Biosolids made from municipal sludge are an attractive solution instead of chemical fertilization. Nevertheless, their effects on the ecosystem should always be considered. In the present study, anaerobically digested sludge was subjected to two leaching methods (EN 12457-2 and NEN 7341) and the main physicochemical parameters were measured in the leachates. The aquatic organisms Daphnia magna and Vibrio fischeri were exposed to the leachates in order to test for adverse effects. Mixtures of biosolid/solid, simulating the high dose of 80 tn/ha, were also created, and the same parameters were measured for EN 12457-2 leachates. The results show a strong seasonal variation for the results for the municipal sludge, even though the sludge did not originate from a touristic area. The biosolid/solid mixtures did not produce toxic responses to the organism tested. Nevertheless, the parameters nitrites and nitrates in the leachates were increased in relation to control and they continued to increase even at Day 40 post-application. This increase was soil-type-dependent. The biosolids in question could be used for field fertilization, however measures should be taken against underground water nitrate pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: activated sludge; biosolids; ecotoxicity; risk assessment; wastewater treatment activated sludge; biosolids; ecotoxicity; risk assessment; wastewater treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Giannakis, I.; Emmanouil, C.; Kungolos, A. Evaluation of Effects of Municipal Sludge Leachates on Water Quality. Water 2020, 12, 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072046

AMA Style

Giannakis I, Emmanouil C, Kungolos A. Evaluation of Effects of Municipal Sludge Leachates on Water Quality. Water. 2020; 12(7):2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072046

Chicago/Turabian Style

Giannakis, Ioannis, Christina Emmanouil, and Athanasios Kungolos. 2020. "Evaluation of Effects of Municipal Sludge Leachates on Water Quality" Water 12, no. 7: 2046. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12072046

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