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Water from the Perspective of Education for Sustainable Development: An Exploratory Study in the Spanish Secondary Education Curriculum

Students’ Scientific Evaluations of Water Resources

Department of Human Development & Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA
Great Minds PhD Science, Washington, DC 20003, USA
Department of Earth and Space Sciences, West Chester University, West Chester, PA 19383, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 2048;
Received: 26 May 2020 / Revised: 8 July 2020 / Accepted: 16 July 2020 / Published: 18 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Literacy and Education)
Socially-relevant and controversial topics, such as water issues, are subject to differences in the explanations that scientists and the public (herein, students) find plausible. Students need to be more evaluative of the validity of explanations (e.g., explanatory models) based on evidence when addressing such topics. We compared two activities where students weighed connections between lines of evidence and explanations. In one activity, students were given four evidence statements and two models (one scientific and one non-scientific alternative); in the other, students chose four out of eight evidence statements and three models (two scientific and one non-scientific). Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that both activities engaged students’ evaluations and differentially shifted students’ plausibility judgments and knowledge. A structural equation model suggested that students’ evaluation may influence post-instructional plausibility and knowledge; when students chose their lines of evidence and explanatory models, their evaluations were deeper, with stronger shifts toward a scientific stance and greater levels of post-instructional knowledge. The activities may help to develop students’ critical evaluation skills, a scientific practice that is key to understanding both scientific content and science as a process. Although effect sizes were modest, the results provided critical information for the final development and testing stage of these water resource instructional activities. View Full-Text
Keywords: water resources; understanding; scientific reasoning water resources; understanding; scientific reasoning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Medrano, J.; Jaffe, J.; Lombardi, D.; Holzer, M.A.; Roemmele, C. Students’ Scientific Evaluations of Water Resources. Water 2020, 12, 2048.

AMA Style

Medrano J, Jaffe J, Lombardi D, Holzer MA, Roemmele C. Students’ Scientific Evaluations of Water Resources. Water. 2020; 12(7):2048.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Medrano, Josh, Joshua Jaffe, Doug Lombardi, Margaret A. Holzer, and Christopher Roemmele. 2020. "Students’ Scientific Evaluations of Water Resources" Water 12, no. 7: 2048.

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