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Article

Meta-Evaluation of Water Quality Indices. Application into Groundwater Resources

Laboratory of Geoenvironmental Science and Environmental Quality Assurance, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, University of West Attica, 250 Thivon & P.Ralli Str., 12244 Athens, Greece
Water 2020, 12(7), 1890; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071890
Received: 19 May 2020 / Revised: 9 June 2020 / Accepted: 28 June 2020 / Published: 2 July 2020
Until now, there was no simple procedure to test the performance of water quality indices (WQIs) or, in other words, to perform their meta-evaluation. The purpose of this study is to provide a meta-evaluation approach of two widely used WQIs and suggestions for selecting one or both of them for application in groundwater quality assessment as proposed by the European Union. The meta-evaluation concept is based on testing the performance of two widely known WQIs by applying classification of Water Framework Directive (WFD; 2000/60/EC) and Groundwater Directive (GWD; 2006/118/EC) which was used as a reference. The Canadian Council of Ministers of Environment (CCME) and National Sanitation Foundation (NSF-WQI) have been selected for evaluation. These WQIs were applied in an agricultural area of the Mediterranean region where six sub-datasets for an entire hydrological year were available. This study uses all the available water quality data (52 monitoring stations × 2 sampling periods × 15 parameters) which is systematically collected at the area studied. The CCME-WQI is a rather strict index since it estimates statistically significantly lower values than the NSF-WQI. Based on the performance of the examined indices, it is shown that, mostly, the CCME-WQI classification findings are close to those of the GWD. View Full-Text
Keywords: meta-evaluation; WQI; NSF-WQI; CCME-WQI; groundwater; water quality; agricultural area; Mediterranean site meta-evaluation; WQI; NSF-WQI; CCME-WQI; groundwater; water quality; agricultural area; Mediterranean site
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MDPI and ACS Style

Alexakis, D.E. Meta-Evaluation of Water Quality Indices. Application into Groundwater Resources. Water 2020, 12, 1890. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071890

AMA Style

Alexakis DE. Meta-Evaluation of Water Quality Indices. Application into Groundwater Resources. Water. 2020; 12(7):1890. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071890

Chicago/Turabian Style

Alexakis, Dimitrios E. 2020. "Meta-Evaluation of Water Quality Indices. Application into Groundwater Resources" Water 12, no. 7: 1890. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071890

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