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An Insight into Ingredients of Toxicological Interest in Personal Care Products and A Small–Scale Sampling Survey of the Greek Market: Delineating a Potential Contamination Source for Water Resources

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School of Spatial Planning and Development, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
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School of Science and Technology, Hellenic Open University, Aristotelous 18, 263 35 Patra, Greece
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Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, 250 Thivon Av., 122 44 Athens, Greece
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Department of Civil Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(12), 2501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11122501
Received: 10 October 2019 / Revised: 20 November 2019 / Accepted: 26 November 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
Wastewater is not a waste but a valuable resource that should be reused. Nevertheless, it should be devoid of physical, chemical, and microbiological parameters that can harm the consumer. Along with the multitude of possible pollutants found in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), emerging pollutants, such as Personal Care Products (PCPs), have arisen. The present research examines some of the main ingredients commonly found in PCPs, focusing on their toxicological profile on their occurrence in WWTPs influents and effluents worldwide and on their persistence and biodegradability. A small-scale market sampling of PCPs was performed in Athens, Greece, in June 2019, and their individual ingredients were recorded, coded according to their main activity, scanned for the presence of ingredients of important toxicological profile, and finally analyzed for the presence of other candidates of toxicological interest. Results show that some ingredients of concern (i.e., parabens and triclosan) are a decreasing trend. On the other hand, information on the presence of synthetic musks and perfume synthesis is scarce and encumbered by brand protection. Finally, UV filters are numerous, and they are used in various combinations, while other ingredients of toxicological interest are also present. Since the reclaimed water may well be used to cover irrigation needs in Greek areas with water deficiency or to enrich bodies of surface water, it is important to know what PCP ingredients are on the rise in the market, to monitor their presence in WWTPs influents and effluents and to extend research on their environmental fate and behavior
Keywords: water quality; water pollutants; personal care products (PCPs); wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); wastewater reuse; biodegradability; water reclamation water quality; water pollutants; personal care products (PCPs); wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs); wastewater reuse; biodegradability; water reclamation
MDPI and ACS Style

Emmanouil, C.; Bekyrou, M.; Psomopoulos, C.; Kungolos, A. An Insight into Ingredients of Toxicological Interest in Personal Care Products and A Small–Scale Sampling Survey of the Greek Market: Delineating a Potential Contamination Source for Water Resources. Water 2019, 11, 2501.

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