Recycling irrigation return flow is a viable option to achieve sustainability in horticultural production systems, but residual herbicides present in recycled water may be phytotoxic. The sensitivity of plants to residual herbicides may vary depending on the growth stage of the plant. If sensitive growth stages are avoided, the risk associated with using recycled water can be reduced. Here, we quantified the effect of residual oryzalin and oxyfluorfen exposure at various growth stages of Hydrangea paniculata
. Exposure to both herbicides reduced plant growth, leaf visual rating, soil plant analysis development (SPAD) chlorophyll index, net photosynthesis, and light-adapted fluorescence of H. paniculata
. Herbicide injury was greater for plants exposed to herbicides at early growth stages, however, the recovery rate of those plants was also rapid. For oxyfluorfen, plants produced healthy new growth immediately after the end of exposure, but for oryzalin, even newly formed leaves developed herbicide injury after the end of exposure, therefore leaf damage continued to progress before recovering. However, damage caused by residual herbicide exposure at all growth stages recovered over time. Physiological measurements such as the SPAD index, net photosynthesis, and light-adapted fluorescence responded quickly to herbicides exposure hence provided an early indicator of herbicide damage and recovery.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited