Impacts of Filled Check Dams with Different Deployment Strategies on the Flood and Sediment Transport Processes in a Loess Plateau Catchment
Institute of Hydrology and Water Resources, Zhejiang University; Hangzhou 310058, China
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1319; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051319
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 1 May 2020 / Accepted: 3 May 2020 / Published: 7 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Modelling and Prediction on the Impact of Human Activities and Extreme Events on Environments)
As one of the most widespread engineering structures for conserving water and soil, check dams have significantly modified the local landform and hydrologic responses. However, the influences of sedimentary lands caused by filled up check dams on the runoff and sediment transport processes were seldom studied. Employing an integrated hydrologic-response and sediment transport model, this study investigated the influences of filled check dams with different deployment strategies in a Loess Plateau catchment. Six hypothetical deployment strategies of check dams were compared with no-dam scenario and the reality scenario. Results showed that filled check dams were still able to reduce Flood peak (Qp) by 31% to 93% under different deployment strategies. Considerable delays of peak time and decreases were also found in scenarios, which were characterized as having larger and more connective sedimentary lands on the main channel. Reduction rates of Sediment yield (SY) and the total mass of Eroded sediment (ES) ranged from 4% to 52% and 2% to 16%, respectively, indicating that proper distributions of check dams can promote sediment deposition in the channel and reduce soil erosion. The results of this study indicate that (1) check dam systems could still be useful in flood attenuation and sediment control even when they were filled, and (2) optimizing the deployment strategies of check dams can help reduce erosion.