Next Article in Journal
Effects of Low Concentration of Selected Analgesics and Successive Bioaugmentation of the Activated Sludge on Its Activity and Metabolic Diversity
Next Article in Special Issue
Trophic Magnification of Legacy (PCB, DDT and Hg) and Emerging Pollutants (PFAS) in the Fish Community of a Small Protected Southern Alpine Lake (Lake Mergozzo, Northern Italy)
Previous Article in Journal
Sea Level Rise Effect on Groundwater Rise and Stormwater Retention Pond Reliability
Previous Article in Special Issue
Combined Effects of Compost and Medicago Sativa in Recovery a PCB Contaminated Soil
Open AccessArticle

Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Hydrochemical Data and Stable Isotopes of Groundwater Contaminated with Nitrate at Huay Sai Royal Development Study Center and Adjacent Areas in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand

1
Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
2
Research Program of Toxic Substance Management in the Mining Industry, Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
3
Research Unit of Green Mining (GMM), Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
4
Inter-Department of Environmental Science, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
5
International Postgraduate Programs in Environmental Management, Graduate School, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1127; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041127
Received: 22 November 2019 / Revised: 8 April 2020 / Accepted: 9 April 2020 / Published: 15 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Fate of Contaminants in the Aquatic Environment)
Due to the continuous expansion in agriculture production and industry for many years, groundwater usage has been increasing, with a decrease in groundwater levels in many cases. In addition, in some areas, groundwater quality has degraded due to agrochemical contamination from agricultural areas. The aims of this research pertains to aquifers as follows: (1) to evaluate hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater using multivariate statistical analysis, including principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), and (2) to integrate the stable isotopes 18O and 2H with hydrochemical data to evaluate the origin of the groundwater and indirectly identify the pollution sources of groundwater contaminated with nitrate (NO3). Water samples were collected from 60 groundwater wells with different hydrogeological characteristics and land use types in both the rainy season (in October) and the summer seasons (in February) in the Cha Am district of Phetchaburi Province. The groundwater was separated into 3 types: Ca-Na-Cl, Ca-Na-HCO3-Cl, and Na-Cl. Two groundwater wells (no. 19 and 41), which were located southeast and southwest of the study area, had relatively high NO3 concentrations (47 mg/L NO3 and 50 mg/L NO3, respectively) that were higher than the groundwater quality standards. These two wells corresponded to the second group that was exposed by HCA. The PCA results revealed the influence of seawater intrusion. Furthermore, multivariate statistical analysis (PC 2) revealed that the NO3 that is mainly released from potassium nitrate (KNO3), for example, during pineapple cultivation, directly contaminated the groundwater system. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogeochemistry; Huai Sai; multivariate statistical analysis; stable isotope hydrogeochemistry; Huai Sai; multivariate statistical analysis; stable isotope
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Chotpantarat, S.; Parkchai, T.; Wisitthammasri, W. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Hydrochemical Data and Stable Isotopes of Groundwater Contaminated with Nitrate at Huay Sai Royal Development Study Center and Adjacent Areas in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Water 2020, 12, 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041127

AMA Style

Chotpantarat S, Parkchai T, Wisitthammasri W. Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Hydrochemical Data and Stable Isotopes of Groundwater Contaminated with Nitrate at Huay Sai Royal Development Study Center and Adjacent Areas in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand. Water. 2020; 12(4):1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041127

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chotpantarat, Srilert; Parkchai, Tewanopparit; Wisitthammasri, Wanlapa. 2020. "Multivariate Statistical Analysis of Hydrochemical Data and Stable Isotopes of Groundwater Contaminated with Nitrate at Huay Sai Royal Development Study Center and Adjacent Areas in Phetchaburi Province, Thailand" Water 12, no. 4: 1127. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041127

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop