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Article

Water Recharge of Jinan Karst Springs, Shandong, China

1
Shandong Institute of Geological Survey, 250014 Jinan, China
2
School of Water Conservancy and Environment, University of Jinan, 250022 Jinan, China
3
Shandong Zhengyuan Geological Resources Exploration co.ltd, 250014 Jinan, China
4
Shandong Provincial Geo-mineral Engineering Exploration Institute, 250014 Jinan, China
5
Jinan Rall Transit Group co.ltd, 250014 Jinan, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 694; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030694
Received: 29 January 2020 / Revised: 21 February 2020 / Accepted: 28 February 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
As the main scavenge port of groundwater in the karst water system, most of the karst springs affected by human activities experienced discharge attenuation phenomenon in the north of China. Whilst artificial replenishment measures have been taken to keep water spewing, the results are not ideal in many karst springs. This is mainly because of poor understanding about the recharging water sources. This paper used the Jinan Spring region as an example to discuss about different spring water supply sources. Based on a wide range of methods (e.g., dynamic observation of spring water level, real-time monitoring of water temperature and electrical conductivity (EC), tracer test, and frequency analysis), this study obtained several findings. First, the maximum karst-fractured water proportion that Cambrian Zhangxia Formation contribute to the Zhenzhu Spring is 57–59%, and the Heihu Spring only recharges 25–31%. Second, the proportion of fracture-karst water to the Heihu Spring from the Fengshan Formation to the Sanshanzi Formation of the Ordovician is 69–75%, while the proportion of the Tanxi spring is 15–17%. Third, the Baotu Spring and Heihu Spring mainly receive karst-fractured water from the Cambrian Zhangxia Formation and fracture-karst water from the Cambrian Fengshan Formation to the Ordovician Sanshanzi Formation. The supply sources of the Zhenzhu Spring and Tanxi Spring are more diverse, including karst-fractured water of the Cambrian Zhangxia Formation and fracture-karst water of the Cambrian Fengshan Formation to the Ordovician Sanshanzi Formation, as well as a small amount of pore water and fissure water, artificial recharge water supply. Fourth, the frequency analysis of spring water temperature indicated that the Zhenzhu Spring and Tanxi Spring are mainly in deep circulation, while the Baotu Spring and Heihu Spring are predominantly in shallow circulation. The differences in the sources of the four largest spring groups suggest that the karst water movement in Jinan has heterogeneous characteristics. The determination of the mixing ratio of the sources of spring water supplies provides a scientific basis for the protection of spring water, and the implementation of artificial recharge projects. View Full-Text
Keywords: CFD; recharging source; karst water; karst spring; Jinan CFD; recharging source; karst water; karst spring; Jinan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, H.; Xing, L.; Meng, Q.; Xing, X.; Peng, Y.; Li, C.; Li, H.; Yang, L. Water Recharge of Jinan Karst Springs, Shandong, China. Water 2020, 12, 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030694

AMA Style

Zhu H, Xing L, Meng Q, Xing X, Peng Y, Li C, Li H, Yang L. Water Recharge of Jinan Karst Springs, Shandong, China. Water. 2020; 12(3):694. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030694

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhu, Henghua, Liting Xing, Qinghan Meng, Xuerui Xing, Yuming Peng, Changsuo Li, Hu Li, and Lizhi Yang. 2020. "Water Recharge of Jinan Karst Springs, Shandong, China" Water 12, no. 3: 694. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030694

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