Next Article in Journal
Water Recharge of Jinan Karst Springs, Shandong, China
Previous Article in Journal
Recent Developments and Future Challenges of Hydrogels as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis Process
Previous Article in Special Issue
Why Do People Remain Attached to Unsafe Drinking Water Options? Quantitative Evidence from Southwestern Bangladesh
Open AccessArticle

Evaluating the Level of the Household Water Service Provided by a Private Water Enterprise in Ghana

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Oklahoma, 202 W. Boyd St, Norman, OK 73019, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030693
Received: 15 January 2020 / Revised: 20 February 2020 / Accepted: 22 February 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of Drinking Water Supplies in Low-Income Regions)
Innovative service delivery models are attempting to more consistently provide clean water to communities in developing countries. It is imperative that these approaches be evaluated for their performance in these contexts while understating potential consequences. A private service delivery model in Ghana utilizing solar-powered water treatment, circuit rider principles, pre-paid metering, and a district-wide approach was assessed for three years. A quasi-experimental design used key informant surveys, household surveys, and water quality testing to investigate the service received by households under various management schemes. Service indicators were compared using logistic regression analysis. Private customers were shown to have significantly improved quality, annual reliability, and satisfaction ratings (p < 0.05) compared with control households, while maintaining the quantity of water collected. However, private customers were more reliant upon multiple water sources to meet domestic needs and suffered from lower affordability scores. About 38% of households used private water services, with no significant relationship with socioeconomic class. It is important for policy-makers and implementers to understand that some people will be unwilling or unable to take advantage of this model, and a transition from free improved sources to paid piped schemes will likely require a period of supporting both systems in order to reach everyone. View Full-Text
Keywords: rural water supply; service delivery models; Sub-Saharan Africa; equity; financial sustainability rural water supply; service delivery models; Sub-Saharan Africa; equity; financial sustainability
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

  • Supplementary File 1:

    PDF-Document (PDF, 670 KB)

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.17632/rm62c7jnj2.2
    Description: Detailed tables and additional figures
MDPI and ACS Style

Deal, P.; Sabatini, D. Evaluating the Level of the Household Water Service Provided by a Private Water Enterprise in Ghana. Water 2020, 12, 693.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop