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Review

Manual Borehole Drilling as a Cost-Effective Solution for Drinking Water Access in Low-Income Contexts

1
Departamento de Geodinámica, Estratigrafía y Paleontología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid, Spain
2
Departamento de Geología, Geografía y Medio Ambiente, Facultad de Ciencias Ambientales, Universidad de Alcalá, Campus Universitario, Alcalá de Henares, 28801 Madrid, Spain
3
Ask for Water GmbH, Zürcherstr 204F, 9014 St Gallen, Switzerland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1981; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071981
Received: 7 June 2020 / Revised: 3 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Present and Future of Drinking Water Supplies in Low-Income Regions)
Water access remains a challenge in rural areas of low-income countries. Manual drilling technologies have the potential to enhance water access by providing a low cost drinking water alternative for communities in low and middle income countries. This paper provides an overview of the main successes and challenges experienced by manual boreholes in the last two decades. A review of the existing methods is provided, discussing their advantages and disadvantages and comparing their potential against alternatives such as excavated wells and mechanized boreholes. Manual boreholes are found to be a competitive solution in relatively soft rocks, such as unconsolidated sediments and weathered materials, as well as and in hydrogeological settings characterized by moderately shallow water tables. Ensuring professional workmanship, the development of regulatory frameworks, protection against groundwater pollution and standards for quality assurance rank among the main challenges for the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: appropriate technologies; developing regions; excavated well; food security; human right to water; improved water sources. appropriate technologies; developing regions; excavated well; food security; human right to water; improved water sources.
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MDPI and ACS Style

Martínez-Santos, P.; Martín-Loeches, M.; Díaz-Alcaide, S.; Danert, K. Manual Borehole Drilling as a Cost-Effective Solution for Drinking Water Access in Low-Income Contexts. Water 2020, 12, 1981. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071981

AMA Style

Martínez-Santos P, Martín-Loeches M, Díaz-Alcaide S, Danert K. Manual Borehole Drilling as a Cost-Effective Solution for Drinking Water Access in Low-Income Contexts. Water. 2020; 12(7):1981. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071981

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martínez-Santos, Pedro, Miguel Martín-Loeches, Silvia Díaz-Alcaide, and Kerstin Danert. 2020. "Manual Borehole Drilling as a Cost-Effective Solution for Drinking Water Access in Low-Income Contexts" Water 12, no. 7: 1981. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071981

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