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Review

Recent Developments and Future Challenges of Hydrogels as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis Process

1
State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150090, China
2
School of Civil Engineering and Transportation, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300401, China
3
College of Urban Construction and Environmental Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 692; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030692
Received: 7 January 2020 / Revised: 6 February 2020 / Accepted: 24 February 2020 / Published: 3 March 2020
Forward osmosis (FO) has been recently regarded as a promising water treatment technology due to its lower energy consumption and lower membrane fouling propensity compared to the reverse osmosis (RO). The absence of suitable draw solute constraints the wide-range application of the FO. Hydrogels are three-dimensional hydrophilic polymer networks that can absorb a huge amount of water. Particularly, stimuli-responsive polymer hydrogels can undergo a reversible volume change or solution-gel phase transition in response to external environmental stimuli, including temperature, light, pressure, solvent composition, and pH. These intrinsic properties indicate the lowest regeneration cost of draw solutes compared to the thermal method and other membrane processes. This review aims to introduce the research progress on hydrogels as draw solutes, clarify the existing problems and point out the further research direction. View Full-Text
Keywords: forward osmosis; draw solute; hydrogel forward osmosis; draw solute; hydrogel
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, J.; Gao, S.; Tian, J.; Cui, F.; Shi, W. Recent Developments and Future Challenges of Hydrogels as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis Process. Water 2020, 12, 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030692

AMA Style

Wang J, Gao S, Tian J, Cui F, Shi W. Recent Developments and Future Challenges of Hydrogels as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis Process. Water. 2020; 12(3):692. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030692

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Jichao, Shanshan Gao, Jiayu Tian, Fuyi Cui, and Wenxin Shi. 2020. "Recent Developments and Future Challenges of Hydrogels as Draw Solutes in Forward Osmosis Process" Water 12, no. 3: 692. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030692

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