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Article

Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Monitoring Reveals Karst Unsaturated Zone Recharge Dynamics during a Rain Event

1
UMR 1114 EMMAH (AU-INRAE), Avignon University, 84000 Avignon, France
2
UPMC, CNRS, EPHE, UMR 7619 METIS, Sorbonne University, 75005 Paris, France
3
IGE, Institute of Research for Development (IRD), University Grenoble Alps (UGA), 38000 Grenoble, France
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3183; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113183
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 14 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Karstic Hydrogeology)
Understanding karst unsaturated zone (UZ) recharge dynamics is crucial for achieving sustainable management of karst hydrosystems. In this paper, we provide the first report of the application of surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR) monitoring of a karst UZ during a typical Mediterranean rain event. This 79 days’ SNMR monitoring is a part of a more than 2 years of SNMR monitoring at the Low Noise Underground Laboratory (LSBB) experimental site located within the Fontaine de Vaucluse karst hydrosystem (southeastern France). We present eight SNMR soundings conducted before and after the rain event that accumulated 168 mm in 5 days. The obtained results demonstrate the applicability and the efficiency of SNMR for investigating infiltration dynamics in karst UZs at the time scale of a few days. We present the SNMR amplitudes that highlight strong signal variations related to water dynamics in the karst UZ. Infiltrated water cause increased SNMR signal during 5 days after the rain event. A significant draining process of the medium starts 15 days after the main event. Finally, after 42 days, the SNMR signal returns close to the initial state. View Full-Text
Keywords: surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR); karst aquifer; unsaturated zone; rain event; temporal variability; infiltration surface nuclear magnetic resonance (SNMR); karst aquifer; unsaturated zone; rain event; temporal variability; infiltration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mazzilli, N.; Chalikakis, K.; Carrière, S.D.; Legchenko, A. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Monitoring Reveals Karst Unsaturated Zone Recharge Dynamics during a Rain Event. Water 2020, 12, 3183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113183

AMA Style

Mazzilli N, Chalikakis K, Carrière SD, Legchenko A. Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Monitoring Reveals Karst Unsaturated Zone Recharge Dynamics during a Rain Event. Water. 2020; 12(11):3183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113183

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mazzilli, Naomi; Chalikakis, Konstantinos; Carrière, Simon D.; Legchenko, Anatoly. 2020. "Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Monitoring Reveals Karst Unsaturated Zone Recharge Dynamics during a Rain Event" Water 12, no. 11: 3183. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113183

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