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Article

Anthropogenic Activity Effects on Canals Morphology, Case Study: Nile Delta, Egypt

1
Ministry of Water Resources & Irrigation, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
2
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical, University of Košice, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
3
Department of Construction Technology and Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Košice, 04001 Košice, Slovakia
4
Department of Water and Water Structures Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44519, Egypt
5
Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, Shaqra University, Dawadmi 11911, Saudi Arabia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3184; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113184
Received: 8 October 2020 / Revised: 6 November 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 14 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Rainwater and Flood Management)
Waterways are usually contaminated with wastes from industrial, domestic or irrigation sectors. Organizations in charge have adopted solutions to eliminate this problem; however, the adopted solutions contribute indirectly to modifying canal morphology during maintenance. These are examples of anthropogenic activity, as well as randomly implemented dredging, which expand the canal cross-sections. Egypt is a country which depends on surface irrigation through a huge network of canals. The majority of canals in Egypt are subject to anthropogenic activity which affects their efficiency. This study aims to assess the impact of conjugated instances of anthropogenic activity and dredging on canal morphology and capacity. Five canals were selected in the current study in the Nile Delta, Egypt. These canals are highly affected by two associated factors: anthropogenic activity by users and dredging by the government. The study also aims to determine the effects of a newly adopted policy for saving surface water through restoration of the canals’ originally designed cross-sections. The results showed a clear change in canal morphology, which has increased the volume of water in the affected canals. In some cases, the volume of water has increased by 59%, which could have negative consequences for Egypt’s water resources. Sustainable management of water resources in Egypt requires saving each water droplet, and canal rehabilitation is expected to save about 6.56 million m3/year by the year 2022. View Full-Text
Keywords: anthropogenic activity; canal cross-section; dredging; morphology; water volume anthropogenic activity; canal cross-section; dredging; morphology; water volume
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MDPI and ACS Style

Abd-Elaziz, S.; Zeleňáková, M.; Mésároš, P.; Purcz, P.; Abd-Elhamid, H.F. Anthropogenic Activity Effects on Canals Morphology, Case Study: Nile Delta, Egypt. Water 2020, 12, 3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113184

AMA Style

Abd-Elaziz S, Zeleňáková M, Mésároš P, Purcz P, Abd-Elhamid HF. Anthropogenic Activity Effects on Canals Morphology, Case Study: Nile Delta, Egypt. Water. 2020; 12(11):3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113184

Chicago/Turabian Style

Abd-Elaziz, Sherien; Zeleňáková, Martina; Mésároš, Peter; Purcz, Pavol; Abd-Elhamid, Hany F. 2020. "Anthropogenic Activity Effects on Canals Morphology, Case Study: Nile Delta, Egypt" Water 12, no. 11: 3184. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113184

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