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Open AccessArticle

The Periodic Response of Tidal Flat Sediments to Runoff Variation of Upstream Main River: A Case Study in the Liaohe Estuary Wetland, China

by Haifu Li 1,2,3,†, Lifeng Li 3,4,†, Fangli Su 2,3,*, Tieliang Wang 2,3 and Peng Gao 1,*
1
College of Forest, Shandong Agricultural University/Mountain Tai Forest Ecosystem Research Station of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Tai An 271018, China
2
College of Water Conservancy, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
3
Liaoning Shuangtai Estuary Wetland Ecosystem Research Station of State Forestry and Grassland Administration, Panjin 124112, China
4
College of Science, Shenyang Agricultural University, Shenyang 110866, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Contributed equally to this work.
Water 2020, 12(1), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010061
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 15 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 22 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wetland Ecohydrology and Water Resource Management)
(1) Background: To reveal the intrinsic relationship between the tidal flat sediments in an estuary wetland and the runoff from the upstream river. This research was conducted in the tidal flats of the Liaohe estuary wetland. (2) Methods: The 137Cs and 210Pb dating technique was used to reconstruct the time correspondence between tidal flat sediments and runoff, and the periodic response was explored between the changes in the tidal flat sediments and runoff based on the spectrum analysis method. (3) Results: The average sedimentation rate in the tidal flat was 2.24 cm·year−1 during the past 50 years. The amount of fine sediment particles deposited on the estuary tidal flat was directly related to the amount of sediments transported by the river and inversely proportional to the ability of rivers to transport fine matter. The high frequency reproduction cycle of 14–15 years in the flood season flow and 5–6 years in the annual sediment discharge of the Liaohe River correspond to the high and low frequency reproduction cycles of the median size of sediments in Liaohe estuarine wetland tidal flats. (4) Conclusions: The research clarified the hydrological constraints of the action law between Liaohe River runoff and the estuarine sediments. The periodic response between Liaohe River runoff and the sediment was established. View Full-Text
Keywords: tidal flat; estuary; sediment; runoff and sediment discharge; periodic response tidal flat; estuary; sediment; runoff and sediment discharge; periodic response
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Li, H.; Li, L.; Su, F.; Wang, T.; Gao, P. The Periodic Response of Tidal Flat Sediments to Runoff Variation of Upstream Main River: A Case Study in the Liaohe Estuary Wetland, China. Water 2020, 12, 61.

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