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Evaluation of Legionella pneumophila Decrease in Hot Water Network of Four Hospital Buildings after Installation of Electron Time Flow Taps

Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, University of Pisa, 56126 Pisa PI, Italy
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Water 2020, 12(1), 210; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12010210
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 7 January 2020 / Accepted: 9 January 2020 / Published: 11 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
Legionella spp. control is a critical issue in hospital with old water networks. Chemical disinfection methods are applied as a control measure over prolonged time periods, but Legionella may be resistant to chemical agents in pipeworks with low flow and frequent water stagnation. We evaluated Legionella spp. colonization in the hot water network of Italian hospitals after the installation of time flow taps (TFTs). In the period between 2017 and 2019, TFTs were installed in four hospital water networks. They were programmed in order to obtain a hot water flow of 192 L/day from each TFTs. A continuous chlorination system (chlorine dioxide) and a cold water pre-filtration device were applied in all the buildings. Before and after TFT installation, Legionella spp. was investigated at scheduled times. Before TFT installation, Legionella pneumophila was detected in all the hospitals with counts ranging from 2 × 102 to 1.4 × 105 CFU/L. After TFT installation, a loss in Legionella pneumophila culturability was always achieved in the period between 24 h and 15 days. Total chlorine concentration (Cl2) was detected in the range between 0.23 and 0.36 mg/L while temperature values were from 44.8 to 53.2 °C. TFTs together with chemical disinfection represent a method which improve water quality and disinfectant efficacy, reducing Legionella colonization in dead-end sections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Legionella; electron time flow taps; hospital water network; chlorine dioxide Legionella; electron time flow taps; hospital water network; chlorine dioxide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Totaro, M.; Mariotti, T.; Bisordi, C.; De Vita, E.; Valentini, P.; Costa, A.L.; Casini, B.; Privitera, G.; Baggiani, A. Evaluation of Legionella pneumophila Decrease in Hot Water Network of Four Hospital Buildings after Installation of Electron Time Flow Taps. Water 2020, 12, 210.

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