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Open AccessArticle

Red Lentil (Lens culinaris) Extract as a Novel Natural Coagulant for Turbidity Reduction: An Evaluation, Characterization and Performance Optimization Study

1
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan 32610, Malaysia
2
Centre for Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan 32610, Malaysia
3
Institute of Sustainable Energy (ISE), Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Selangor 43000, Malaysia
4
Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar, Perak Darul Ridzuan 32610, Malaysia
5
Bali Botanical Gardens, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Candikuning Baturiti, Tabanan Bali 82191, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1686; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081686
Received: 30 May 2019 / Revised: 26 June 2019 / Accepted: 8 July 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water and Wastewater Treatment)
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Abstract

Increasing awareness on the detrimental effects of inorganic chemical coagulants and sustainable treatment have paved the way to develop environmentally-benign natural coagulants for water and wastewater treatment. In this research, brown, green, and red lentil (Lens culinaris) extracts have been evaluated as a natural coagulant for the turbidity reduction. The physicochemical characteristics properties of lentil extract were evaluated through field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), zeta potential analysis, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. Red lentil extract was found to be an anionic polymer with hydroxyl and carboxyl functional groups. The effects of three major operating parameters, pH, the concentration of coagulant, and settling time, were studied and optimized through response surface methodology (RSM) using the Box–Behnken Design (BBD). The red lentil extract as coagulant was outperformed alum in acidic wastewater treatment, which achieved up to 98.87% turbidity removal with an optimum concentration of 26.3mg/L in 3min. Besides, the red lentil extract as coagulant reduced 29.42% of material cost, generated 15.6% lower amount of sludge and produced flocs with better settling characteristic (SVI: 7.39) as compared to alum. Based on the experimental observation and characterization study, absorption and bridging mechanisms were proposed for red lentil extract as the coagulant in turbidity reduction. View Full-Text
Keywords: natural coagulant; lentil extracts; response surface methodology; polysaccharide; coagulation and flocculation; water and wastewater treatment natural coagulant; lentil extracts; response surface methodology; polysaccharide; coagulation and flocculation; water and wastewater treatment
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Chua, S.-C.; Malek, M.A.; Chong, F.-K.; Sujarwo, W.; Ho, Y.-C. Red Lentil (Lens culinaris) Extract as a Novel Natural Coagulant for Turbidity Reduction: An Evaluation, Characterization and Performance Optimization Study. Water 2019, 11, 1686.

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