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Scour at Bridge Foundations in Supercritical Flows: An Analysis of Knowledge Gaps

1
Department of Civil Engineering, University of Concepción, Edmundo Larenas 215, Concepción 4030000, Chile
2
University of Lyon, INSA de Lyon, LMFA, 20 avenue Einstein, 69621 Villeurbanne CEDEX, France
3
Centre d’Analyse Comportementale des Ouvrages Hydrauliques (CACOH), Compagnie Nationale du Rhône, 69007 Lyon, France
4
Irstea, UR RiverLy, centre de Lyon-Villeurbanne, 5 Rue de la Doua, CS 20244, F-69625 Villeurbanne CEDEX, France
5
Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 3580000, Chile
6
University Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, Grenoble INP, LEGI, 38000 Grenoble, France. Institute of Engineering, University Grenoble Alpes, 38000 Grenoble, France
7
Departamento de Ingeniería Hidráulica y Ambiental and Departamento de Minería. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago 3580000, Chile
8
Department of European and Mediterranean Cultures, University of Basilicata, via Lanera 20, 75100 Matera, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1656; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081656
Received: 17 June 2019 / Revised: 15 July 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental, Numerical and Field Approaches to Scour Research)
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Abstract

The scour at bridge foundations caused by supercritical flows is reviewed and knowledge gaps are analyzed focusing on the flow and scour patterns, available measuring techniques for the laboratory and field, and physical and advanced numerical modeling techniques. Evidence suggests that the scour depth caused by supercritical flows is much smaller than expected, by an order of magnitude compared to that found in subcritical flows, although the reasons for this behavior remain still unclear. Important questions on the interaction of the horseshoe vortex with the detached hydraulic-jump and the wall-jet flow observed in supercritical flows arise, e.g., does the interaction between the flow structures enhance or debilitate the bed shear stresses caused by the horseshoe vortex? What is the effect of the Froude number of the incoming flow on the flow structures around the foundation and on the scour process? Recommendations are provided to develop and adapt research methods used in the subcritical flow regime for the study of more challenging supercritical flow cases. View Full-Text
Keywords: bridge foundations; scour; supercritical flows; sediment hydraulics bridge foundations; scour; supercritical flows; sediment hydraulics
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Link, O.; Mignot, E.; Roux, S.; Camenen, B.; Escauriaza, C.; Chauchat, J.; Brevis, W.; Manfreda, S. Scour at Bridge Foundations in Supercritical Flows: An Analysis of Knowledge Gaps. Water 2019, 11, 1656.

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