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Open AccessArticle

Turbulent Flow Structures and Scour Hole Characteristics around Circular Bridge Piers over Non-Uniform Sand Bed Channels with Downward Seepage

Department of Civil Engineering, VJTI, Mumbai 400019, India
Department of Civil, Archictural and Environmental Engineering (DICEA), University of Naples Federico II (UNINA), 80125 Napoli NA, Italy
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati 781039, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1580;
Received: 6 June 2019 / Revised: 30 June 2019 / Accepted: 18 July 2019 / Published: 30 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Experimental, Numerical and Field Approaches to Scour Research)
In alluvial rivers bridge piers often cause local scour, a complex phenomenon as a result of the interaction between turbulent flow and bed material. In this paper, the results of an experimental study on the scour hole characteristics around single vertical pier sets on a non-uniform sand bed, under no seepage, and with downward seepage conditions, are described. In case of downward seepage, turbulent statistics, such as Reynolds stress, higher order moments, TKE-flux, and consequently sediment transport, decrease upstream of the pier, while increasing on both sides of it, where the enhanced erosive capacity of the flow results in an increase in the scour hole width. Moreover, the scour hole length shifts downstream. Empirical equations for the evaluation of scour hole characteristics, such as the length, width, area, and volume, including the downward seepage parameter, are proposed and experimentally tested. Model predictions give reasonably good agreement with the experimental data. View Full-Text
Keywords: downward seepage; pier; scour; turbulent statistics downward seepage; pier; scour; turbulent statistics
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Chavan, R.; Gualtieri, P.; Kumar, B. Turbulent Flow Structures and Scour Hole Characteristics around Circular Bridge Piers over Non-Uniform Sand Bed Channels with Downward Seepage. Water 2019, 11, 1580.

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