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Open AccessArticle

Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Hormones and Other Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater Using Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification Microextraction with Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet Followed by GC-MS Detection

1
Institute of Chemistry, University of Bialystok, Ciołkowskiego 1K, 15-245 Bialystok, Poland
2
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45C, 15-351 Białystok, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1638; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081638
Received: 24 June 2019 / Revised: 29 July 2019 / Accepted: 6 August 2019 / Published: 8 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Removal of Organic Pollution in Water Environment)
Ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction with solidification of floating organic droplet (USAEME-SFOD) has been applied to isolate hormones and other emerging contaminants from groundwater samples. Simultaneously with the extraction process, derivatization in the matrix was carried out using acetic anhydride. Quantification of studied organic pollutants was done through gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Hormones included β-estradiol (E2), estrone (E1), and diethylstilbestrol (DES). Other compounds belonged to groups of pharmaceuticals (diclofenac (DIC)), antiseptics (triclosan (TRC)), preservatives (propylparaben (PP) and butylparaben (BP)), sunscreen agents (benzophenone (BPH), and 3-(4-methylbenzylidene)camphor (3MBC)), repellents (N,N-diethyltoluamide (DEET)), industrial chemicals (bisphenol A (BPA), 4-t-octylphenol (4OP), 4-n-nonylphenol (4NP)). A non-toxic and inexpensive 1-undecanol was successfully used as the extraction solvent. Volume of extractant and derivatization agent, ionic strength, and time of extraction were optimized. Very low limits of detection (LoD) ranging from 0.01 to 5.9 ng/L were obtained. Recoveries ranged from 90% to 123%, with relative standard deviation being lower than 17%. The developed procedure was used to determine target compounds in groundwater collected at municipal waste landfills as well as in groundwater from wells distant from sources of pollution. View Full-Text
Keywords: ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction; solidification of floating organic droplet; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; hormones; emerging contaminants; groundwater ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction; solidification of floating organic droplet; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; hormones; emerging contaminants; groundwater
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Kotowska, U.; Kapelewska, J.; Kotowski, A.; Pietuszewska, E. Rapid and Sensitive Analysis of Hormones and Other Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater Using Ultrasound-Assisted Emulsification Microextraction with Solidification of Floating Organic Droplet Followed by GC-MS Detection. Water 2019, 11, 1638.

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