# Advanced Operating Technique for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs Based on Flood Forecasting to Increase System Resilience in Urban Watersheds

## Abstract

**:**

^{3}compared to the current operation in 2010, and the flooding volume in 2011 decreased from 664 to 490 m

^{3}. In the 2010 event, the results of resilience were 0.831835 and 0.866566 in current and new operations, respectively. The result of resilience increased from 0.988823 to 0.993029 in the 2011 event. This suggestion can be applied to operating facilities in urban drainage systems and might provide a standard for the design process of urban drainage facilities.

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodologies

#### 2.1. Production of Artificial Rainfall Data

_{n}(i = 1, 2, 3, …, n) is the constant of the nth polynomial equation for a Huff distribution in each area. In Korea, a value of 6 is generally selected for n, although the value can be an integer of 5, 6, or 7. A process for applying non-dimensional cumulative rainfall into non-dimensional distributed rainfall is required. For example, the non-dimensional distributed rainfall volume at time i is A − B, when the non-dimensional cumulative rainfall volume at time i is A and at time i − 1 is B.

#### 2.2. Advanced Flood Forecasting Technique

#### 2.3. Advanced Operation for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs

#### 2.4. Resilience of UDSs

^{3}) are the value of the performance evaluation function and flood volume at time t, respectively. R(t) (m) is the rainfall amount at time t, and A (m

^{2}) is the basin area of the target watershed. The resilience of the UDS is calculated based on the value of the PE function in Equation (7).

## 3. Application and Results

#### 3.1. Information of the Target Watershed

^{2}. In addition, the area of Seoul is only 0.6% of the total area of Korea, and it has a high population density. The Han River penetrates from east to west in Seoul. Because Seoul is downstream of the Han River, the hydraulic gradient is gradually decreasing, and the flow of water is slow. In the case of flooding, the water level in Seoul (downstream from the Han River) is increased because of the water flowing from the upper and middle stream basin.

^{3}/min), while the capacity of the centralized reservoir is 33,650 m

^{3}. The design return period of the Daerim decentralized reservoir is 20 years, and it has 2 drainage pumps (18 m

^{3}/min), while the capacity of a decentralized reservoir is 2477 m

^{3}. Table 2 shows the information on the centralized and decentralized reservoirs.

#### 3.2. Application of Advanced Flood Forecasting

#### 3.3. Application of Advanced Operation for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs

_{R}is the required depth, P is the initial pump capacity, and T is the initial preparation time for the pump. In addition, V is the required volume, and A

_{m}is the mean area. The initial operating level is calculated using Equation (10).

^{3}) of the previous operation [16] was lower than that (611.4 m

^{3}) of the current operation. Additionally, the advanced operation (new operation) showed the minimum peak value of flooding volume (50.4 m

^{3}) among the three operations. The results of the total flooding volume during the current operation, previous operation, and new operation were 6617, 3904, and 3368 m

^{3}, respectively. The new operation showed a flooding reduction of 3249 m

^{3}compared to the current operation. The results of applying the current operation, previous operation, and new operation to the historical rainfall event in 2011 are shown in Figure 9.

^{3}) in the previous operation [16] was higher than that (57 m

^{3}) in the current operation. The current and advanced operation (new operation) showed the minimum peak flooding volume (57 m

^{3}). The previous operation showed the largest peak flooding volume among the three operations. The results of the total flooding volume during the current operation, previous operation, and new operation were 664, 552, and 490 m

^{3}, respectively. The new operation showed a flooding reduction of 174 m

^{3}compared to the current operation. Diagrams with the reservoirs volume and discharge evolution are required. The volume and discharge in 2010 were selected because the flooding volume in 2010 was larger than 2011. The volume of the centralized reservoir in 2010 is shown in Figure 10.

#### 3.4. Resilience of Advanced Operation with Advanced Flood Forecasting

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 5.**Information on the UDS used in the target watershed (Imagery © 2019 CNES/Airbus, DigitalGlobe, Landsat/Copernicus, NSPO 2019/Spot Image, Map data © SK telecom).

**Figure 8.**Flooding results of an advanced operation in 2010 [1].

**Figure 9.**Flooding results of an advanced operation in 2011 [1].

**Figure 10.**Volume of the centralized reservoir in 2010 [1].

**Figure 11.**Discharge of the centralized reservoir in 2010 [1].

**Figure 12.**Volume of the decentralized reservoir in 2010 [1].

**Figure 13.**Discharge of the decentralized reservoir in 2010 [1].

**Table 1.**Classification of measures with real-time control (RTC) in urban drainage systems (UDSs). NSM, non-structural measure.

Measures | Studies |
---|---|

Independent NSMs | Beeneken et al. (2013) [3]; Cembrano et al. (2004) [4]; Fiorelli et al. (2013) [5]; Fuchs and Beeneken (2005) [6]; Galelli et al. (2012) [7]; Hsu et al. (2013) [8]; Kroll (2018) [9]; Lund et al. (2018) [10]; Pleau et al. (2005) [11]; Raimondi and Becciu (2015) [12]; Schütze et al. (2004) [13]; Vanrolleghem et al. (2005) [14]; Zacharof et al. (2004) [15] |

Combined NSMs | Lee et al. (2017) [1]; Sweetapple et al. (2018) [16] |

Integrated NSMs | Lee et al. (2016) [17]; Xu et al. (2018) [18] |

Mixed NSMs | This study |

Drainage Facilities | Capacity of Reservoirs (m^{3}) | Capacity of Drainage Pumps (m^{3}/min) | Boundary Conditions |
---|---|---|---|

Daerim3 pump station with a centralized reservoir | 36,200 | 3411 (223 m ^{3}/min × 7,150 m ^{3}/min × 1,250 m ^{3}/min × 2,600 m ^{3}/min × 2) | High water level: 9.0 m Low water level: 6.8 m |

Daerim decentralized reservoir | 2477 | 18 (9.0 m ^{3}/min × 2) | Total height: 3.2 m Inflow weir: 2 m × 0.4 m |

**Table 3.**Normal and early operation of the centralized reservoir in the study area [28].

Pump Station | Operation | Operating Level (m) | ||||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Daerim3 | Elevation (m) | 6.5 | 6.8 | 7.2 | 7.3 | 7.5 | 7.6 | 7.7 | 7.8 | 7.9 | 8.0 | 8.1 | 8.3 | 9.0 |

Normal | - | - | - | 3.88 | 8.05 | 15.48 | 19.65 | 23.36 | 27.08 | 30.80 | 57.02 | 57.02 | 57.02 | |

Early | - | 3.88 | 8.05 | 15.48 | 19.65 | 23.36 | 27.08 | 30.80 | 57.02 | 57.02 | 57.02 | - | - |

Event | System Resilience | |||
---|---|---|---|---|

Current Operation (1) | Previous Operation [16] (2) | New Operation (3) | Resilience Increment ((3) − (1)) | |

2010 | 0.831835 | 0.855584 | 0.866566 | 0.034731 |

2011 | 0.988823 | 0.992997 | 0.993029 | 0.004206 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Lee, E.H.
Advanced Operating Technique for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs Based on Flood Forecasting to Increase System Resilience in Urban Watersheds. *Water* **2019**, *11*, 1533.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081533

**AMA Style**

Lee EH.
Advanced Operating Technique for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs Based on Flood Forecasting to Increase System Resilience in Urban Watersheds. *Water*. 2019; 11(8):1533.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081533

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Lee, Eui Hoon.
2019. "Advanced Operating Technique for Centralized and Decentralized Reservoirs Based on Flood Forecasting to Increase System Resilience in Urban Watersheds" *Water* 11, no. 8: 1533.
https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081533