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Comparison of Multivariate Spatial Dependence Structures of DPIL and Flowmeter Hydraulic Conductivity Data Sets at the MADE Site

1
Center for Applied Geoscience, University of Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany
2
Research Facility for Subsurface Remediation (VEGAS), University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Germany
3
Kansas Geological Survey, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS 66047, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1420; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071420
Received: 11 June 2019 / Revised: 4 July 2019 / Accepted: 5 July 2019 / Published: 10 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
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Abstract

We analyse two datasets of hydraulic conductivity (K) from the MAcroDispersion Experiment (MADE) site, one measured by direct-push injection logging (DPIL) and the other by flowmeter profiling. The analysis is performed using copula techniques which do not rely on the assumption of multivariate Gaussianity and provide a means to characterise differing degrees of spatial dependence in different quantiles of the K distribution. This characterisation provides better insights into the similarities and differences between the two datasets. In addition to the marginal distributions and the traditional two-point geostatistical measures, copula-based bivariate rank correlation and asymmetry measures are analysed and compared. Furthermore, the parameter estimates obtained by likelihood estimation using n-point theoretical models are analysed. This analysis confirms the similarity of the spatial dependence of K between the two datasets in terms of their marginal distributions and bivariate measures, particularly in the vertical direction. We demonstrate clear indications of the existence of non-Gaussian spatial dependence structures of K at this site. We were able to improve the estimation of the K distribution by taking into account either non-Gaussianity or a censoring threshold, which are expected to lead to a more realistic description of processes that are dependent on K. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogeology; geostatistics; copula; censored data hydrogeology; geostatistics; copula; censored data
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Xiao, B.; Haslauer, C.; Bohling, G. Comparison of Multivariate Spatial Dependence Structures of DPIL and Flowmeter Hydraulic Conductivity Data Sets at the MADE Site. Water 2019, 11, 1420.

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